History of the English Language part 4


the prescribing of rules for language


the native language of a population located in a country or in a region defined on some other basis, such as a localityIE Navajo lang of native americans in ENGLISH speaking america


one of two or more words of the same language that come from the same root

1. Be able to discuss the influence of 1)the introduction of the printing press, 2) the Renaissance, 3) theProtestant Reformation, and 4) increasing urbanization on English spelling,standardization, contexts of use, and attitudes of prescriptivism.

1. No more clerical errors, mass produced knowledge, increased literacy, writing became a living2. Rebirth of classical learning--->translations= +loanwords; stylistic dramatically Greek influences, a "Clean up of the language (prescriptivism)3. Individual relationship w/God, everyone needed to read the bible, increases litteracy, peoples vernacular bible KJV 16114.rise of middle class, etiquette

Be able to list 3 cases of deletion during the EMnE period that are reflected in�silent� letters in our spelling system

gh ([�] and [x] allophones of /h/), l (in words like half; later returned in some words through spelling pronunciation),gn-, kn- (gnat, knee). Be able to give an example of a word for each one.

Know the sound changes that made up the Great Vowel Shift and be able to matchpre-shift and post-shift words

After GVS, vowel length no longer phonemic

Know how EMnE contractions differed from PDE contractions.

EMnE shortens 1st word : 'tisPDE 2nd: It's

Know that thou was lost by the end of the EMnE period.

Psssst! thou was lost by the end of the EMnE period.

Know the degree of acceptability of multiple negation in EMnE.

Less common but acceptable until the 1800's.

Know which language was the source of the largest number of loanwords in EMnE.


Know why English borrowed words from non-Indo-European languages for the first time during this period.

The contact with these people was through trade and so we adopted their words to identify source of the products as well as maintain identity of the products instead of creating our own words and making trade even more difficult.

Know when the first English dictionaries came out and why then.

Samuel Johnson 1755, There was dissatisfaction with the dictionaries of the period, so in June 1746 a group of London booksellers contracted Johnson to write a dictionary.


Blends deal with the action of abridging and then combining various lexemes to form a new word.Over-lap= overlap


he definition of the word eponymy is that something�a place, a discovery, an era�takes its name from that of a personJohn=toilet


Google becomes "Google it" trademarked products include �zipper,� �thermos,� �escalator,� �popsicle,� �band-aid,� and �pooper-scooper." encase products or actions


also called the Queen's (or King's) English[1] and BBC English, is the accent of Standard English in England,


Geographically and culturally, it often refers to working class Londoners, particularly those in the East End.


pidgin" language is, fundamentally, a simplified means of linguistic communication, as is constructed impromptu, or by convention, between groups of people. a simplified language that develops as a means of communication between two or more groups that do not have a language in common, in situations such as trade, or where both groups speak languages different from the language of the country in which they reside


Creole language, a stable, full-fledged language that originated from a pidgin or combination of other languages. Creole languages subgroups may include:

Know three causes of regional dialect variation in N. America.

1. Muliti-cultural (historical legacy languages: IE Spainish/california, Germany/Pennsylvania)2.IT'S FREAKING HUGE (distance between even heavily populated areas) 3. Great sense of social identity

Know the sound changes that make up the Northern Cities� Vowel Shift and be able tomatch post-shift pronunciations (in IPA) with written English words

Stick-stEkstEck-st(*e)kst(*e[u])k-st(*c[oh])kst(*c)k-st(ae [a])kst(ae)k-st(ie)k

Know that the sound changes in the Southern Shift tend to move vowels in the opposite direction from the Northern Cities� Shift:

regional differences in pronunciation are not disappearing.

Know the relative amount of dialect variation (difference per distance) in the U.S., Canada, England, andAustralia. Know why they differ.

300 miles its fraking distance. Duh

Know historical reasons for the current position of English as a world language.

After years of European dominance, English was spoken in high quantity in almost every part of the world in some point in time. After the world Wars, English was a language of trade and military power, our high finance dealing with every nation's politics and finance in high degrees establishing a need to know it.