APEuro reformation


a political or secular matter


one who works for a religion as an occupation


a member of the church but not clergy


a percentage of your income given to support the church, usually 10%


the teachings of a religion


to show favoritism or unfair preference for family or friends


to buy or sell a religious office


holding more tan one religious title


things that you can do to lessen the weight of your sins, by the 1400s you could buy them

vulgate bible

latin medieval bible used in the catholic church


belief that the church had become too concerned with how something was done instead of why


greek word for nowhere, a perfect, ideal place

status quo

things the way they are

faith alone

luther's idea that faith not works lead to salvation

faith and works

catholic idea that both are needed for salvation


royal family of prussia, later germany


great banking family of northern europe; like medici


a court


to take back


to sentence to death

priesthood of all believers

luther's belief that all christians are equally blessed by the holy spirit, no special priestly powers


northernmost region of europe: denmark, iceland, norway, sweden, sometimes finland


senseless, cruel, violent act


a clergyman who serves in the military ministering to soldiers


in a catholic mass the bread and wine are transformed into the actual body and blood of christ


protestant idea of communion that the bread and wine are only symbolic of the body and blood of christ


a smaller group within a larger one, usually a small group persecuted by the larger one


calvanist dogma that god predetermines salvation and damnation, and nothing you can do will change it


a religious image


one who smashes religious idols

archbishop of canterbury

the senior religious leader of the anglican church

act of supremacy

1533 law that named the king head of the church in england

act of uniformity

a law that required every church in england to use the book of common prayer


married to a reigning king or queen


a reigning king or queen

act of religious settlement

promises religious toleration in england to all who would choose nation first and religion second


a term for one who puts nation first above religion


french protestants, calvanists


scotish protestant political movement led by john knox


all radical non traditional protestants in europe


to end a marriage by declaring it invalid


not legal


a ruler either voluntarily or involuntarily gives up a throne

39 articles

a new confession of faith defined by theological issues; midway between lutheranism and calvanism during the reign of queen elizabeth

battle of lepanto

1571spain's holy league vs. turkishencroachments in the mediterranean resulted in victory over the turkish fleet

pope paul III

appointed the reform committee of the catholic church

king francis I

valoisfather of henry IIIrival of charles Vhapsburg-valois wars

church of england

anglican-Henryseized church lands and sold to aristocratspriests were forced to swear loyalty to the king or dienobility forced to sign the act of supremacy

john calvin

calvanismforced to flee to genevainstitutes of the christian religion

institutes of the christian religion

calvan's most important work, outlined the basic structure for protestant church, WRITTEN IN FRENCH predestination"doctrine of the elect"faith aloneconsubstantiationiconoclastics

queen catherine de' medici

st. bartholomews day massacremarired henry II (valois)pulled the strings behind Francis II, charles IX and Henry III (her sons)

mary queen of scots

beheaded by elizabeth after being involved in a plot to kill her

william the silent

leader of the dutch protestants against the spanish duke of alba, sent by the king

act of supremacy

Henry VIII1533named the king head of the church of england

thomas cromwell

helped henry VIII with dissolution of monasteries and organizing the government's new role in the church

suleiman the magnificent

leader of the ottoman turksdefeated king louis of hungary(charles V brother in law)

edict of nantes

henry IV of navarregranted huguenots full religious toleration-200 fortified cities

council of blood

a form of the inquisition used by philip II in the revolt in the netherlands

act of religious settlement

passed by elizabeth Ipromised religious toleration as long as you were loyal to the crownkept a general peace

act of uniformity

1549introduced the book of common prayermade all services in england the same

queen elizabeth I

-final victory of protestantism in england-act of religious settlement 15559-enemy of philip after declaring to be protestant- aided the dutch in revolt against spain-executed by mary stuart-supported pirate campaigns-spanish armada

revolt of the netherlands

spanish netherlands began converting to calvanism and were attacked by the duke of albacouncil of blooddutch resisted alba, led by william the silentreligious liberty and independence

king henry IV of navarre

married margot (valois) on st. bartholomews dayhad to convert to catholocismgranted edict of nantes- full religious toleration and restored religious peace

henri guise

lead the massacre in st bartholomews day

king philip II

spaindevout catholicbelieved his destiny was to restore catholicism all over the continent financially supported by the new worldlost holland

french wars of religion

violence between catholics and huguenotscatholic leaguest. bartholomews day massacre edict of nantes created temporary peace

society of jesus

jesuitsfounded by ignatious of loyolaforceful order of the churchspecialized in education and set up schools all over the world

council of trent

1545-1563made profound changes in church life-required priests to be more educated-ended sale of indulgences, pluralism, and simony-standardized mass in latin-reaffirmed all basic catholic beleifs

catholic reformation

needed assistance of major catholic monarchs in europe for military responsecatholic monarchs hated potestants but did not want the church to become more powerfulalso at war themselves

doctrine of the elect

those chosen for salvation in calvanism

peace of augsburg

HRE ferdinand I allowed each state within the empire to select its own religion; catholic or lutheran-ruler's faithtemporarily restored religious peace

ulrich zwingli

swiss priest and chaplainstudent of erasmus but caused a break-consubstantiation

marburg colloquoy

zwubgku vs. lutheridea of transubstantiationbroke into separate sects

diet of worms/edict of worms

luther was forced to appear before HRE and officialswould not recant and condemned to death- fleed to the protection of german princes

martin luther

95 theses-a challenge to the whole concept of indulgences (1517)"jsut shall live by faith alone

sir thomas more

advisor to henry VIII-executedutopia-describes a blueprint of how to make a perfect world in an imperfect on, recognizes that no such place exists

queen mary I

devout catholicattempted to reestablish catholicismpushed to hard = missed opportunity(bloody mary)

king edward VI

henry VIII and lady jane seymorehis reign marked the beginning of the faith in englandact of uniformity

king henry VIII

took the popes side in diet of worms"defender of the faith"break with church was political not religious2nd of the tudor dynastycatherine of aragon, anne boleyn, jane seymore, anne cleves, katherine howard, catherine darr

HRE charles V

enemy of francis I of franceat war with ottoman turksedict of worms (luther) made no attempt "i do not make war on dead men"attack protestant states = civil war1555 abdicated -brother ferdinand and son philip II

peasants war

rose against nobles in swabialuther did not support (loyalty to princes who protected him)-against the robbing and murdering hordes of peasants

erasmus of rotterdam

-handbook of the christian knight-in praise of human follyinspired others who broke from the church

christian humanism

attempted to reform the church from the insidefavored simplified religious servicecatholics who wanted reform but not to leave the church altogetherERASMUS OF ROTTERDAM AND THOMAS MORE


common slur of all "radical" protestantsreferred to the tradition of adult baptism-amish, mennonites, quakers, unitariansmillenarianism- belief that the end of the word was at hand

schmalkaldic league

a league of protestants, created for a defense against the catholics


architecture-kept essence of classical techniques but with detailing and colorful flourishes (palace at versailles)art-highly ornamented style concerned with the use of balance and harmony and passionliterature-paradise lost


english protestants inspired by calvanist theology who wished to remove all traces of catholicism in the church of england

spanish armada

fleet of spanish warships sent to do battle on england (elizabeth)1588

philip melanchthon

praecepter germaniaesaxonydivided students into 3 classes based on age or capabilities

sir william cecil

cheif advisor for elizabeth I during her reign

united provinces

the northern parts of the netherlands that broke from philip in the revolt of the netherlands

ecclesiastical ordinances

church constitution of calvin-created church government that used both clergy and layman in the service of the church

leipzig debate

luther vs. johann eyckluther was forced to move beyond indulgences to deny the authority of popes and councils -luther identified with john hus, a condemned heretic