Where does mechanical and chemical digestion start?

Both start in mouth

Where does mechanical and chemical disestion end?


Where does most of chemical digestion occur?

Small intense

Which enzymes are responsible for the breakdown of carbs?


Which enzymes are responsible for the breakdown of protiens?


Which enzymes are responsibile for the breakdown of fats?


What food group should be at the base of one's diet and why?

GrainsThey provide the body with complex carbs, fiber, vitamins and minerals

Define essential nutrients

Needed by the body, but the body cells are unable to make them from other compounds

What is the difference btw simple and complex carbs?

Complex carbs take longer to be broken down and as a result one doesn't get hungrry as fast.

What food group has the most energy (calories) per gram weight?


Where does absorption of digested nutrients occur?

Small intestine, through small finger like folds called villi

Discuss the ways in which fiber is beneficial.

1. Fills one up more.2. Increases water absorption in the colon and faciliates bowel movements3. Lowers body levels of cholesterol


Main source of energy and are used for production of heat, energy and movement.


For growth and replacement and repair cells.


Source of energy and serve to store vitamins (fat not water soluble)


Proper body function, many chemical reactions in the body


Body Functions


The medium through which neutriants are transported to and wastes removes from all body cellsInvolved in chemical reactions that occur in body cells

What is the relationship btw Saturated fats and cholesterol?

Cholesterol and fats travel in the blood throughout the body in lipoporteins for storage in liver. Low-density lipoproteins (bad chol): transport chol. from cells/tissues that have more then needed to others that need.High-density lipoproteins (good chol): transport cholesterol to liver.LDLS causse plaque build up in the blood stream leading to cardio disease.


fungi (decomposers) some produce toxins that can be deadly if ingested


A bacteria that uses oxygen in respiration

Active Stage

reproducing itself

Latent Stage

Everytime the host cells divide, the viral DNA is also replicated and the new cells have viral DNA inserted in their own DNA

Why arent viruses considered part of any kingdom even though they replicate?

They can't reproduce by themselves, they need living cells in order to do so.

Which group of microrganisms is responsible for the production of various products? (cheze, yogart, wine, bread)


Give examples of viruses who undergo a latent stage.

DNA/retro viruses

Bacteria Benefits

Help animals break down organic matterFarming, provide plants with nutrients, nitrogen

Bacteria Harm

Dental decay,throat infection, pheumonia, meningitis, gonorrhea, diphtheria, TB, leprosy.

How could you measure the rate of fermenation using an activity involving this process

Use balloons to measure carbon dioxide in yeast.

Fungi Benefits

Useful source of food such as mushrooms, and yeast.

Fungi Harm

Causes diseases in organisms, most skin/nail diseases are caused by fungi

What is fermentation? What are the products of the different types of fermentation? (including muscle cells)

Certain cells can also get energy in the absence of oxygenMuscle cells breakdown pyruvic acid and produce lactic acidProduces bread and alchohol


Have process of nucleic acid, surrounded by a protein coat, infect animals, plants, fungi and bacteria. Two types of viruses Those that reproduse right away and kill the cell and others that don't, No med to treat them


Do not have membrane bound orgarells.Not all badPlay important role in farming and in our diets