Geol Test 2

Which of the following is/are most susceptible to chemical weather by dissolution?A. iron oxidesB. calciteC. QuartzD. Clay minerals

B. calcite

Frost wedging is the major weathering process contributing to the formation of which regolith material?A. tropical lateritesB. C soil horizonsC. mature pedalfersD. talus slopes

D. talus slopes

Clay minerals, silica (SiO2), and dissolved potassium bicarbonate in the soil water are products of which process?A. chemical weathering of olivine and plagioclase feldsparB. chemical weathering of orthoclase feldsparC. differential mechanical weathering of micasD. mechanical weathering of granite and rhyolite

B. chemical weathering of orthoclase feldspar

What two factors speed up rates of chemical reaction and weathering in rocks and soils?A. low temps; very dryB. low temps; very moistC. high temps; very dryD. warm temps; vert moist

D. warm temps; very moist

In which area are pedocal soils mostly likely to be found? A. a moderately dry to semiarid grassland such as the western Great PlainsB. a forested area of the Southeastern United StatesC. a bitterly cold, permafrost area in northern-central SiberiaD. a forested rainforest in Amazon Basin of Brazil

A. a moderately dry to semiarid grassland such as the western Great Plains

The finely divided, red, brown, and yellow soil-coloring minerals originate by what process?A. chemical weathering of quarts and feldsparsB. mechanical weathering of the feldspars and micas in granite and rhyoliteC. precipitation of iron oxides during the chemical weathering processD. mechanical weathering of very fine-grained, blue-grays clays

C. precipitation of iron oxides and during the chemical weathering process

Which of the following statements about laterites or tropical rainforest is true?A. laterites, with proper management, are very suitable for commercial agricultureB. laterite soils readily compact and hardened when dried and exposed to sunlightC. rainforests generate quickly following clear cutting or clearing for agricultureD. laterite soils are very rick in nutrients required for vigorous plant growth

B. laterite soils readily compact and hardened when dried and exposed to sunlight

Which one of the following is an important, mechanical weathering process for enlarging fractures and extending them deeper into large boulder and bedrock?A. eluviationB. frost wedgingC. oxidationD. hydrologic cycling

B. frost wedging

Which of the following best describes sets of fractures in relatively fresh bedrock, such as granite, that are roughly parallel to the land surface?A. sheeting fracturesB. thermalC. columnar jointsD. hydrolytic failures

A. sheeting fractures

under similar war, moist climatic conditions, what would basalt and gabbro generally have higher chemical weathering rates than rhyloite and granite?A. the plagioclase feldspar in the granite and rhyolite decompose readily to clay minerals and iron oxides.B. the quartz in the gabbro and basalt decomposes very quicklyC. the ferromagnesian minerals in the gabbro and basalt are subject to oxidation and chemical wreatheringD. the potassium feldspars and quartz in the rhyolite and granite are more susceptible to cracking by frost wedging.

C. the ferromagnesian minerals in the gabbro and basalt are subject to oxidation and chemical weathering

Which one of the following statements concerning mechanical weathering is not true?A. disintegration and decomposition of rocks and minerals at the the surfaceB. involves a major change in the mineral composition of the weathered materialC. allows for faster rates of chemical weatheringD. is important in the formation of talus slopes

B. involves a major change in the mineral composition of the weathered material

Which one of the following statements best describes erosion?A. the combined process of leaching, eluviations, and mass wastingB. the process by which weathered rock and mineral particles are removed from one area and transported elsewhereC. movement of weathered rock and regolith toward the base of a slopeD. disintegration and decomposition of rocks and minerals at the surface

B. movement of weathered rock and regolith toward the base of a slope

Assuming that water filling a crack in a rock undergoes cycles of freezing and melting. Which of the following statements is true?A. water expands as it melts, causing the crack walls to be pushed apartB. water expands as it freezes, causing the crack walls to be pushed apartC. water shrinks as it melts, causing the crack walls to be pulled closer togetherD. water shrinks as it freezes, causing the crack walls to be drawn closer together

B. water expands as it freezes, causing the crack walls to be pushed apart

What mineral particles are the dominant coloring agent in reddish, brownish, and yellowish soils?A. soluble potassium and sodium bicarbonatesB. dust-sized grains of iron oxidesC. very fine-sized, silica and calcite bicarbonatesD. humus and calcium carbonate

B. dust-sized grains of iron oxides

Lateritic soils form under what climatic conditions?A. cool and relatively dry as in the northern Great Plains of the USB. warm and moist as in the wet, tropical forestC. hot and dry as in the desert regions of North Africa and ArabiaD. moist and temperate as in the northeastern US

B. warm and moist as in the wet, tropical forest

____, a common mineral found in igneous rocks, is the most abundant mineral in detrital sedimentary rocks.A. calciteB. quartzC. biotiteD. orthoclase

B. quartz

Sandstone (Match the sediment with the appropriate rock name.)A. clay and fine siltB. gravelC. sandD. all clay sediment

C. sand

Shale (Match the sediment with the appropriate rock name.)A. gravelB. all clay sedimentC. clay and fine siltD. sand

B. all clay sediment

Mudstone (Match the sediment with the appropriate rock name.)A. gravelB. all clay sedimentC. clay and fine siltD. sand

C. clay and fine silt

Conglomerate (Match the sediment with the appropriate rock name.)A. all clay sedimentB. clay and fine siltC. gravelD. sand

C. gravel

Which of the following best describes bedded gypsm and halite?A. detrital sedimentary rocksB. evaporates; chemical, sedimentary rocksC. varieties of dolostoneD. varieties of coal and peat

B. evaporates; chemical, sedimentary rocks

____ sandstone contains abundant feldspar, suggesting that the sand was derived by weathering and erosion of granitic bedrock.A. ligniticB. arkosicC. ooliticD. quart-rich

B. arkosic

What is the main difference between a conglomerate and a sedimentary breccia?A. breccia clasts are angular; conglomerate clasts are roundedB. breccia has a compacted, clay-rich matrix; conglomerate have no matrixC. breccia clasts are the size of baseballs; congolmerate clasts are largerD. a breccias is well stratified; a conglomerate is poorly startified

A. breccia clasts are angular; conglomerate clasts are rounded

Which statement concerning sedimentary rocks is not true?A. they may contain fossils that provide clues about ancient life formsB. they are composed of particles and constituents derived from weathering and erosion of other rocks.C. they probably show some evidence of stratificationD. they were originally deposited at depth below the bottom of the sea

D. they were originally deposited at depth below the bottom of the sea

____ is not a common cementing agent for sandstones.A. quartzB. calciteC. fluoriteD. iron oxides

C. fluorite

Which of the following applies to the basic constituents of halite, gypsum, and sylvite?A. transported as dissolved ions; deposited by evaporationB. transported as dissolved ions; deposited as detrital mudC. transported as detrital mud; deposited by evaporationD. transported and deposited as mud-sized particles

A. transported as dissolved ions; deposited by evaporation

Flint, chert, and jasper are microcrystalline forms of ____A. hematiteB. quartzC. haliteD. calcite

B. quartz

Which of the following sedimentary rocks would you expect to have originally been deposited by fast-moving streams?A. oolitic limestoneB. greywackeC. mudstoneD. conglomerate

D. conglomerate

Detrital grains of which minerals are extremely rare in detrital sediments? Why?A. clays; they are rare in soils and regolithsB. feldspar; they occur only in granitesC. calcites; it is soft and relatively solubleD. quartz; it is very hard and soluble

C. calcites; it is soft and relatively soluble

Which of the following sedimentary features would typically be found in shales but not in sandstones?A. mudcracksB. beddingC. ripple marksD. cross stratification

A. mudcracks

____ is the most common type of chemical sedimentary rock.A. chertB. quartz sandstoneC. limestoneD. phosphate rock

B. limestone

Which of the following sedimentary features can each be used to determine paleocurrent directions?A. mud cracks and ripple marksB. ripple marks and cross stratificationC. fossils and mud cracksD. grain size sorting and ripple marks

B. ripple marks and cross stratification

Coal beds originate in -A. deep, marine basins below wave actionB. channels of fast-moving streamsC. freshwater costal swamps and bogsD. shallow lakes in a dry, desert regions

C. freshwater costal swamps and bogs

Which of the following forms is at the highest grade of regional metamorphism?a. schistb. hornsfelc. phyllited. slate

??

What platy, parallel, mineral grains are the most visual aspect of foliated metamorphic rocks?A. quartzB. feldsparC. micasD. carbonates

C. micas

What major change occurs during metamorphism of limestone to marble?A. calcite grains grow larger and increase in sizeB. calcite grains are dissolved away leaving only marble crystalsC. clays crystallize to micas, forming a highly foliated, mica-rick rockD. limestone grains react to form quartz and feldspar

A. calcite grains grow larger and increase in size

Which low-grade metamorphic rock, composed of extremely fine-sized mica and other mineral grains, typically exhibits well-developed rock cleavage?A. hornsfelB. schistC. quartziteD. slate

D. slate

_____ is a strong, parallel alignment of coarse mice flakes and/or of different mineral bands in a metamorphic rock.A. marbleizingB. stress streakingC. foliationD. rock cleavage

D. foliation

Which of the following best describes the conditions of contact metamorphism?A. heat is generated by shearing and mechanical movements along faultsB. pressures are very high, the rock is deeply buried, and temperatures are raised by the Earth's internal heatC. depths are fairly shallow, but temperatures and pressures are so high that the rocks begin to partially meltD. pressures are fairly low, the rock is in the upper part of the crust, and heat is supplied from a nearby magma body

D. pressures are fairly low, the rock is in the upper part of the crust, and heat is supplied from a nearby magma body

____ forms from the metamorphism of limestone or dolostoneA. amphiboliteB. marbleC. migmatiteD. quartzite

B. marble

___ is characterized by segregation of light-and dark-colored minerals into thin layers or bands.A. quartziteB. granitic gneissC. garnet hornfelsD. slate

B. granitic gneiss

Which of the following lists the rocks in order of increasing grain size and increasing grade of metamorphism?A. slate, phyllite, schistB. schist, slate, phylliteC. phyllite, slate, schistD. slate, schist, phyllite

A. slate, phyllite, schist

What is the major source of heat for contact metamorphism?A. deep burial and heat from the Earth's interiorB. heat from grinding and shearing on faultsC. heat from the spontaneous decomposition of micas and feldsparD. heat from a nearby magma body

D. heat from a nearby magma body

In which setting would regional metamorphism be most likely?A. at great depths in the crust where two continents are collidingB. at shallow depths along major transform faults in the continental crustC. at shallow depths beneath the sea floor where water pressures are immenseD. at shallow depths below an oceanic ridge or rift zone

A. at great depths in the crust where two continents are colliding

An Unconformity is a buried -A. fault or fracture with older rocks above and younger rocks belowB. surface of erosion with older strata above and younger strata belowC. fault or fracture with younger strata above and older strata belowD. surface of erosion separating younger strata above from older strata below

D. surface of erosion separating younger strata above from older strata below

The radioactive isotopes Uranium-238, Uranium-235, and Thorium-232 eventually decay to different, stable, daughter isotopes of - a. leadb. aragonc. irond. strontium

a. lead

What fundamental concept states that in a horizontal sequence of conformable sedimentary strata, each higher bed is younger than the bed below it?A. theory of correlative depositionB. law of superpositionC. law or original correleationD. theory of supersition

B. law of superposition

The ____ is the idea or concept that ancient life forms succeeded each other in a definite, evolutionary pattern and that the contained assemblage of fossils can determine geologic ages of strata?A. principle of cross correlationB. law or correlative indexingC. principle of faunal successionD. law of fossil regression

C. principle of faunal succession

____ refers to the process of fossilization where the internal cavities and pores of the original organism are filled with precipitated mineral matter.A. impressionB. petrificationC. carbonizationD. replacement

B. petrification

What is the age of the earth accepted by most scientists today?A. 6.4 million yearsB. 4.5 billion yearsC. 6.4 billions yearsD. 4.5 million years

B. 4.5 billion years