MA-170 Ch 12

gonad

produces the reproductive cells

vulva

external female genitalia�mons pubis�labia majora�labia minora�clitoris�prepuce�opening for glands

internal structures (female)

�left and right ovary�left and right uterine tube�uterus�vagina�special glands

mons pubis

pad of fatty tissue and thick skin that overlies the front of the pubic bone

clitoris

small mass of erectile tissue and nerves, becomes erect in response to sexual stimulation

labia majora

larger of the two pairs of skin folds that protect the vaginal opening (singular = labium majus)

labia minora

smaller pair of skin folds that protect the vaginal opening (singular = labium minus)

prepuce

retractable cover over clitoris

vaginal vestibule

space between the two labia minora into which the urethra and vagina open

vestibular glands

(Bartholian glands) produce mucus-like secretion for lubrication during sexual intercourse

perineum

area between the vaginal opening and the anus

ovaries

�primary reproductive structures�produce ova (eggs) and hormones�singular = ovum

Fallopian tube

�also called uterine tubes�most commom site of firtilization of the ovum, which dies within 24-48 hours if not firtilized

fimbriae

finger-like projections of the fallopian tube that create current to sweep the ovum into the tube

uterus

muscular organ that prepares to receive and nuture the firtilized ovum

vagina

�birth canal�muscular and capable of sifficient expansion for passage of the child during childbirth�repository for sperm during intercourse

menstrual cycle

monthly cycle of growth and discharge of the endometrium

layers of uterine tissue

outermost to innermost:�perimetrium, is a visceral peritoneum (peri- = around, metr/o = uterine tissue)�myometrium, thick muscular wall of the uterus�endometrium, mucous membrane

role of hypothalamus and pituitary gland on reproductive functions

hormones produced by these structures act on the ovaries to bring about:�the production of ova�the production of additional hormones, estrogen and progesterone

estrogen

female sex hormones,�responsible for female secondary sex characteristics�act on femal genitalia during the menstrual cycle to produce a suitable environment for fertilization, implantation, and nutrition of the early embryo

progesterone

hormone produced by the ovaries that prepares and maintains the utetus during pregnancy.

puberty

stage of development when genitalia reach maturity and secondary sex characteristics�girls between 9 to 13 years old

menarche

first occurrence of menstruration

menopause

natural cessation of reproductive cycles and menstruation with the decline of reproductive hormones in later years�also called climacteric�may occur earlier as a result of illness or surgical removal of the uterus or both ovaries

menstruation

periodic bloody discharge from the shedding of the endometrium

when do the ovarian and uterine cycle begin?

when certain unknown stimuli cause the hypothalamus to start secreting a hormone that acts on the pituitary gland, which then begins to secrete two hormones FSH and LH that act on follicles in the ovaries

ovarian phase

�day 1-5: follicular phase. growth of the follicle. secretion of estrogen�day 6-12: follicular phase continues�day 13-14: ovulation. ovum us released by follicle�day 15-28: luteal phase. follicle becomes corpus luteum. secretes progesterone

uterine (menstrual) phase

�day 1-5: menses. blood is shed from the vagina.�day 6-12: proliferative phase. growth of the endometrium.�day 13-14: proliferative phase continues.�day 15-28: secretory phase. continued growth of the endometrium, secretion of glycogen

menses

the normal flow of blood during menstruation when fertilization has not occurred

oogenesis

formation of ova

vaginal speculum

an instrument that can be pushed apart after it is inserted into the vagina to allow examination of the cervix and the walls of the vagina

cytology

the study of cells

Pap smear

�Papanicolaou smear or test�performed to detect cancer of the cervix�material is collected from areas of the body that shed cells

gynecologic examination

(1)inspection of the external genitalia (2)speculum examination. vaginal walls and cervix inspected. smears are obtained (3)bimanual examination assesses the location, size, and mobility of the pelvic organs (4)rectovaginal examination is not always pervormed

dysplasia

abnormal development; in pathology, alteration in size, shape, and organization of adult cells, can be detected before cancer of the uterus

trichomonas

vaginal and urethral parasite

gonorrhea

infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae; transmitted sexually in most cases but also by contact with infected exudates in neonatal children at birth, or by infants in households with infected in habitants; it is characterized by discharge and painful urination in male individuals and is often asymptomatic in female individuals

Gram stain

slide-staining technique that aids in classification and identification of bacteria, is especially useful for vaginal smears if gonorrhea is suspected

Rapid Plasma Reagin Test

an agglutination test used in screening blood for syphilis

syphilis

a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum that is characterized by lesions that may involve any organ or tissue

Human chorionic gonadotropin

present in body fluids of pregnant females, and blood or urine is tested to determine if pregnancy exists; may also be used to detect rare forms of tumors in either men or women

chorion

membrane that develops around a fertilized embryo

gonadotropin

a hormonal substance that stimulates the gonads

colposcopy

use of a low-powered microscope to magnify the mucosa of the vagina and the cervix

colposcope

instrument used in a colposcopy

hysteroscopy

direct vaginal inspection of the cervical canal and uterine cavity, using an endoscope passed through the vagina

hysteroscope

endoscope used in a heterscopy

pelvic sonography

helpful in detecting masses, such as ovarian cysts

computed tomography

may be used to detect a tumor within the pelvis

hysterosalpingography

radiologic examination of the uterus and uterine tubes after an injection of radiopaque material into those organs. it allows evaluation of the size, shape, and position of the organs, including tumors and certain other abnormalities, as well as obstruction of a uterine tube

hysterosalpingogram

record produced in hysterosalpingography

laparoscopy

examination of the abdominal body with a laparoscope through one or more incisions in the abdominal wall. especially useful for inspection of the ovaries and other structures within the pelvic cavity, as well as collection of biopsy specimens or performance of tubal ligation to prevent pregnancy

menstrual disorders

�painful menstruation�heavy or irregular flow�spotting�absence of or skipping periods�premenstrual syndrome

menorrhea

means either normal menstruation or too profuse menstruation

menorrhagia

profuse menstruation

metrorrhagia

uterine bleeding other than that caused by menstruation�may occur as spotting or outright bleeding, the period flow sometimes being prolonged�may be caused by uterine tumors, benign or malignant, and especially cervical cancer

amenorrhea

absence of menstruation�normal before puberty, after menopause, and during pregnancy

dysmenorrhea

painful or difficult menstruation

mittelschmerz

abdominal pain in the region of an ovary during ovulation, it is helpful in pinpointing the fertile period of the ovarian cycle

premenstrual syndrome

nervous tension, irritability, edema, headache, and painful breasts that can occur the last few days before the onset of menstruation�many females experience some degree of PMS but fewer than half experience symptoms that disrupt their lives

cervicitis

inflammation of the cervix uteri

acute cervicitis

infection of the cervix marked by redness, bleeding on contact, and often pain, itching, or burning, and a foul smelling discharge from the vagina�may be caused by several species of bacteria, Chlamydia, Candida albicans (yeast), or the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, or some STDs like gonorrhea

chronic cervicitis

persistent inflammation of the cervix

vaginitis

inflammation of the vaginal tissues or infection of the vagina�may be accompanied by itching, burning or discomfort during urination, and vaginal discharge�however some infections are asymptomatic�vaginal infections are usually related to sexual intercourse but can also occur after childbirth or after taking antibiotics that produce changes in the vaginal tissues�sny = colpitis

colpitis

inflammation of vaginal tissues or infection of the vagina�syn = vaginitis

vulvitis

inflammation of the vulva�associated with itching and burning�can be caused by infection, contact with irritants (soaps, detergents or allergens), or systemic conditions like dryness of the tissues and hormonal changes, particularly associated with aging, or STDs

vulvovaginitis

inflammation of the vulva and vagina??�vulvar infections can be extension of vaginal infections

oophoropathy

any disease of an ovary

oophoritis

inflammation of an ovary

oophoralgia

ovarian pain

oophorosalpingitis

inflammation of an ovary and a fallopian tube

anovulation

absence of ovulation�failure of the ovaries to produce, mature, or release ova�causes include altered ovarian function or dysfunction, side effects of medications, and stress or disease

polycystic ovary syndrome

hormonal disturbance characterized by anovulation, amenorrhea, and infertility�caused by increased levels of testosterone, estrogen, and luteinizing hormone and decreased secretion of FSH�numerous cysts may develop, with the affected ovary sometimes doubling in size

ovarian cyst

globular sac filled with fluid or semisolid material that develops in or on the ovary�may be transient or pathologic�benign cysts are common and may be asymptomatic or they may cause pelvic pain and menstrual irregularities

ovarian cancer

�leading cause of death from reproductive cancers because the disease has usually spread to other organs by the time it is discovered�sonography and CT may detect the mass but diagnosis generally requires surgical exploration

salpingocele

hernial protrusion of a fallopian tube

salpingitis

inflammation of a fallopian tube

ectopic pregnancy

fertilized ovum implants somewhere outside of the uterine cavity, usually in the fallopian tube(ect/o = outside, top/o = position, -ic = pertaing to)

tubal pregnancy

fertilized ovum implants in the fallopian tube, treatment is generally removal of the pregnancy and the fallopian tube

pelvic inflammatory disease

(PID) any infection that involves the upper genital tract beyond the cervix�fallopian tubes usually infected�without treatment, the tubes can become obstructed and cause infertility�untreated staphylococcal infections can spread along the endometrium to the fallopian tubes and cause and acute salpingitits

septicemia

infection of the blood

toxic shock syndrome

septicemia, sudden high fever, headache, confusion, acute renal failure, and abnormal liver function are characteristic of TSS�caused by Staphylococcus species and is most common in menstruating women who use tampons

uterine cancer

identified by the extent to which it has spread to other organs starting with stage I (confined to uterine corpus) and ending at stage IV (spread beyond the pelvis)

hysteropathy

any disease of the uterus

hysteroptosis

weakening of the ligaments that normally hold it in place, causing uterine prolapse�can be congenital or caused by heavy physical exertion�classified according to severity

uterine displacements

variations from the midline in the pelvis,

anteversion

forward displacement of the body of the uterus

retroversion

uterus is tipped backward

anteflexion

bending forward of the uterus

retroflexion

bending backward of the uterus

uterine leiomyoma

benign tumor occurring in the uterus and is also called a uterine fibroid. large tumors may cause general enlargement of the lower abdomen

cervical polyps

benign lesions attached to the cervix, often by a stalk and can sometimes be seen in a gynecological examination

myometritis

inflammation of the myometrium

endometritis

inflammation of the endometrium, generally produced by bacterial invasion of the endometrium

endometriosis

abnormal condition in which tissue that contains typical endometrial elements is present outside of the uterus, usually within the pelvic cavity�endometrial tissue that is located outside the uterine lining responds to hormonal changes and goes through cyclic changes of bleeding and proliferation, scarring and adhesions result

leukorrhea

�white, viscid (sticky) discharge from the vagina and uterine cavity�normally occurs in the adult female�somewhat increased before and after the menstrual period

colpodynia

pain of the vagina

colporrhagia

hemorrhage from the vagina

vaginal fistulas

abnormal openings between the vagina and the urethra, the bladder, or the rectum�urethrovaginal fistulas = between the urethra and the vagina�rectovaginal fistulas = between the rectum and the vagina�vesicovaginal fistulas = between the bladder and the vagina

cystocele

protrusion of the urinary bladder through the wall of the vagina�occurs when support is weakened between the two tructures�large one can interfere with emptying the bladder

rectocele

protrusion of the rectum through the wall of the vagina�weakening between the vagina and rectum�large one can interfere with emptying the rectum

contraceptives

used to prevent conception

most common gynecological problems for which females seek treatment?

vaginal discharge, bleeding, and pain

vulvectomy

excision of the vulva�characteristically used to treat cancer of the vulva

vaginectomy

removal of all or part of the vagina

colpectomy

removal of all or part of the vagina

colporrhaphy

suture of the vagina

colpoplasty

surgical repair of the vagina

oophoropexy

surgical fixation to correct an ovary that has lost its normal support

oophorectomy

surgical excision of one or both ovaries�laparoscopic oophorectomy is selected whenever possible and greatly reduces the recovery time recovered for an abdominal oophorectomy

hysterectomy

removal of the uterus either laparoscopically (laparohysterectomy), vaginally (colpohysterectomy), or via open abdominal surgery�abdominal hysterectomy = removed through an incision in the abdominal wall, used when the pelvic cavity is to be explored or when the ovaries and the uterine tubes are to be removed at the same time�subtotal hysterectomy = rarely done, removal of the uterus without removing the cervix�total hysterectomy = removal of uterus and cervix

bilateral oophorosalpingectomy

removal of both ovaries and both fallopian tubes

salpingo-oophorectomy

removal of an ovary and its uterine tube

pelvic exenteration

removal of all pelvic organs, dont when other forms of therapy are ineffective in controlling the spread of cancer and no metastases have been found outside of the pelvis

salpingectomy

surgical removal of one or both fallopian tubes

tubal ligation

one of several sterilization procedures in which both uterine tubes are constricted, severed, or crushed to prevent conception�most often performed laparoscopically�can be reversed but not always successfully

dilation and curettage

cervix is dilated to allow the insertion of a curet (sugical instrument shaped like a spoon) into the uterus to scrape and remove material from the endometrium�done to assess disease of the uterus, correct heavy or prolonged vaginal bleeding, empty the uterus of residue after childbirth, and to remove the products of conception

cryotherapy

�also called cryosurgery�uses subfreezing temperature to destroy tissue

cauterization

to burn tissues by laser, hot metal, electricity, or another agent with the objective of destroying tissue

hysteropexy

surgical fixation of a displace uterus

salpingopexy

surgical fixation of a fallopian tube

salpingorrhaphy

suture of a fallopian tube

testes

testicles; male gonads, responsible for production of both spermatozoa and hormones�paired oval glands�divided into several compartments called lobules�singular = testis

spermatozoa

male sex cells (sperm)�singular = spermatozoon

penis

male organ for copulation�penile = pert. to the penis

glans penis

conical tip of the penis

copulation

�coitus

scrotum

pouch of loose skin that contains the two testes and their accessory organs

scrotal

pert. to the scrotum

testicular

pert. to a testicle or testicles

spermatic

pert. to sperm or pert. to semen

ductus deferens

�vas deferens�long duct that begins at the epididymis, enters the abdominal cavity, and connects with other structures of the internal reproductive tract

prostatic

pert. to the prostate

prostate

gland that surrounds the neck of the bladder and the urethra in males, also produces fluids that contribute to semen and are necessary for the survival of sperm

bulbourethral glands

paired glands that contribute an alkaline mucus-like fluid the the semen

seminal vesicles

paired saclike glandular structures in the male sex that produce a fluid that is added to the secretion of the testes and other glands to form semen

semen

�seminal fluid�secretion of the male reproductive organs that is discharged from the urethra�mixture of sperm cells and secretions from accessory glands (prostate, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands

urethra

passage by which urine is discharged from the bladder

seminal

pert. to semen

spermatogenesis

production of mature, functional sperm capable of participating in conception�requires a temperature slightly lower than body temp�influenced by hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and the testes�begins at puberty, normally continues throughout life, decline in later years

seminiferous tubules

tubules in each lobules of the testes, where sperm are produced

epididymis

where sperm are stored until they are released

interstitial cells of Leydig

surround seminiferous tubules and produce testosterone

testosterone

hormone secreted by the testes that brings about induction and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics

route of sperm

seminiferous tubules of the testes (sperm production) => epididymis (sperm storage) => ductus deferens => ejaculatory duct => urethra => ejaculation of sperm in semen

routine examination of male genitalia

(1) inspection of the external genitalia (2) palpation for inguinal hernias and (3) examination of the rectum digitally

chancre

lesion that indicates the first stage of syphilis

inguinal hernia

hernia in which a loop of the intestine enters the inguinal canal, sometimes fills the entire scrotal sac

prostate-specific antigen test

a blood test used to screen for prostatic cancer and monitor the patient's response to treatment

needle biopsy

needle inserted through the rectal mucosa to the prostate to remove a small amount of tissue if cancer of the prostate is suspected

sperm count

test for male fertility

urology

branch of medicine that specializes in the male and female urinary tract and also includes male reproductive structures

testicular cancer

more common in younger men

prostatic cancer

more common in older men

torsion of the testes

axial rotation of the spermatic cord�cuts off the blood supply to the testicle and can lead to loss of the testicle�surgical correction within a few hours is required to save the testicle

oligospermia

insufficient sperm in the semen

aspermia

absence of sperm

aspermatogenesis

absence of sperm

azoospermia

absence of living sperm

erection

condition of swelling, rigidity, and elevation of the penis, and to a lesser degree in the clitoris of the female, caused by sexual arousal�can occur during sleep

erectile dysfunction

inability to achieve penile erection�male impotence�can be caused by poor health, certain drugs, fatigue, and vascular problems�sildenafil (Viagra) or tadalafil (Cialis) can be used

cryptorchidism

developmental defect characterized by the failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum�hormones or surgery are used to help the testicle descend

testalgia

testicular pain�orchialgia�orchidalgia

orchiopathy

any disease of the testes

anorchidism

congenital absence of the testis�may occur unilaterally or bilaterally�also called = anorchism

orchiditis

inflammation of the testis�marked by pain, swelling, and feeling of weight�orchitis

epididymitis

inflammation of the epididymis

hydocele

mass, usually filled with a straw-colored fluid (hydr/o)�may be the result of orchitis, epididymitis, or venous or lymphatic obstruction

spermatocele

mass that contains sperm�develops on the epididymis�often painless, may need no intervention

vericocele

cluster of dilated veins that occurs above the tesis�asymptomatic in many cases but may contribute to infertility

phimosis

occurs when the prepuce is constricted at the opening so that it cannot be retracted back over the glans penis�caused by inflammation or edema�sometimes accompanied by balanitis

balanitis

inflammation of the glans penis

benign prostatic hyperplasia

common disorder, particularly in men over 50�not malignant�usually progressive and may lead to obstruction of the urethra and to interference with urination�urinary frequency, pain, and urinary tract infections are characteristic of this disorder�prostatitis may also occur

prostatitis

can be acute or chronic, bacterial or abacterial, or without known cause

prostatic carcinoma

cancer of the prostate�usually occurs in men over 50�most common cancer among men besides skin cancer

orchiectomy

excision of the testis

orchioplasty

surgical repair of a testicle

orchiotomy

incision and drainage of a testis

hydrocelectomy

surgical removal of a hydrocele

circumcision

surgical removal of the end of the prepuce

transurethral resection prostatectomy

surgical procedure that is performed through the urethra, and small pieces of the enlarged prostate are removed�treatment for BPH

transurethral microwave thermotherapy

uses microwave energy to raise the temperature of the prostatic tissue�treatment for BPH

transurethral needle ablation

uses low-level radio frequency energy�treatment for PBH

ablation

removal or excision of a growth on any part of the body

BPH

benign prostatic hyperplasia

Cx

cervix

D&C

dilation and curettage

FSH

follicle-stimulating hormone

GU

genitourinary

GYN, Gyn, gyn

gynecology

hCG, HCG

human chorionic gonadotropin

HRT

hormone replacement therapy

LH

luteinizing hormone

LMP

last menstrual period

NIH

National Institute of Health

Pap

Papanicolaour smear, stain, or test

PID

pelvic inflammatory disease

PMS

premenstrual syndrome

PSA

prostate-specific antigen

RPR

rapid plasma reagin test (for syphilis)

STD

sexually transmitted disease

TAH

total abdominal hysterectomy

TSS

toxic shock syndrome

TUMT

transurethral microwave thermotherapy

TUNA

transurethral needle ablation

TURP

transurethral resection of the prostate

VDRL

Venereal Disease Research Laboratories