NS 70: Disorders of Olfaction & Taste

How many neurons exist in the OEp?

about 100 million

Approximately what is the area of the OEp?

2 cm2

What is anosmia?

The condition whereby you cannot smell anything

What is hyposmia?

The condition by which you have a decreased sense of smell

What is dysosmia?

The dyfunction of smell

What is Parosmia?

Distortion of a smell, usually to something bad

What is Phantosmia?

Smells, usually bad, that are derived from no physical stimuli

What is hypersomia and how common is it?

extrasensation of a smellnot particularly common

What are the four methods of olfactory function and what are their clinical relevance?

Threshold Testing: series of different concentrations of butanoyl, but not very clinically relevant because of adaptation of the olfactory neuronsIdentification Testing: this one is actually used and consists of multiple choice scratch and sniff smells because natural smells do not keep too long in a clinical settingThere are also Electro-olfactograms and Brain-Evoked Potentials: these are not clinically relevant

What three things factor into olfactory testing?

Age: the older you get, the less you can smell especially after 60 yearsGender: women smell better than menAdaptation: takes about 1-5 minutes for us to go from a strong smell to hardly noticable

What are the two broad disorders of olfactory function?

Conductive: this is something a clinician can do something aboutSensorineural: this is a disorder of the actual sensor/neuron cell; harder to fix

What are the two causes of conductal olfactory disorders?

Obstructive Nasal/Sinus DiseaseNeoplasms

How would you differentiate a nasal polyp from a neoplasm?

well a nasal polyp is a sinus epithelium that is so swollen up that it blocks the nose (1st picture)a neoplasm is just a cancer there (2nd picture)

What are the causes of sensorineural anosmia?

�Aging Parkinsons, Alzheimers�Congenital: Kallman's Syndrome�Viral injury�Toxic injury�Inflammatory diseases�Head traumas�Neoplasms�Endocrine/Metabolic: diabetes, cushing's disease, renal failure, vitamin deficiencies�Medication related: antibiotics, chemotherapy, antithyroid agents, diuretics, opiates, anti-seizure agents, hypoglycemic agents�Iatrogenic: We cause�Psychiatric disorders�Idiopathic

What are the diagnositic steps for determining olfactory function?

HxPhysical ExamNasal EndoscopyIdentification testsImagingLaboratoryBiopsy

How do we treat olfactory disorders?

conductive: relieve obstructionsensorineural: steriods, vitamins, and zinc

80% of taste disorders are due to what?

Olfaction problems

Which nerves gather taste for the tongue?

chorda tympani (CN VII): anterior 2/3 of tongueglossopharyngeal (CN IX): posterior 1/3 of tonguelaryngeal (CN X): very back and pharynx, cheeks, etc

What causes your eyes to water when you eat ammonia?

Trigeminal Nerve

What are the 5 basic tastes?

sweetsaltsourbitterumami

What are the four steps of testing gustatory function?

assess olfactionthreshold testingmagnitude matching: matching sound with tastespatial testing

What are common reasons for taste disorders?

agingxerostomiamedication inducedendocrine/metabolicmalnutritiontraumaneoplasms