Nutrition-Related and Skin Conditions


Protein calorie malnutrition, prolonged starvationMuscle wasting, loss of subQ fatCommon causes: anorexia, bowel obstruction, cancer cachexia, chronic illness


From NIACIN deficiencyPigmented keratotic scaling of skinMore prominent in areas exposed to sun

Scorbutic Gums

From Vit C deficiencySwollen, ulcerated, bleeding gums

Follicular Hyperkeratosis

Associated with Vit A or Essential Fatty Acid (like linoleic) deficiencyDry, bumpy skin


Diets mostly carb, little proteinChildren and adultsEdema/third-spacing (low oncotic pressure due to protein def)


Due to Vitamin D and Calcium deficiency

Basal Cell Carcinoma

80% of all skin CAIn LOWEST (think BASE) level of epidermisPerly white/translucentSlow growing, rarely mets

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

16% of all skin CAUpper layer of epidermisScaly, red, inflamed, ulceratedMay mets (but not usually)

Actinic Keratosis

Scaling, yellowish, waxy macules and papulesOften on forehead, scalpMust watch for development of skin cancers


4% of skin cancersArise from pigment producing melanocytesMost lethal b/c spreads rapidlyRisk: 1 in 49 for MEN; 1 in 73 for WOMEN


In skin foldsLike diaper rash


Erythematous, papules and vesiclesMay ooze and crustSites: scalp, forehead, cheeks, wrists, elbows, backs of kneesFamily hx of allergies


Scaly, erythematous patch w/ silvery scales on topSites: scalp, outsides of elbows, knees, lower back & anogenital areas


MJ!Patches of depigmentationDepigmented MACULES on face, hands, feet, and extensor surfacesMay be hereditary

Cafe au Lait Spot

Uniformly pigmented macule w/ slightly irreg border6+ w/ over 1.5 cm diameter may mean neurofibromatosis

Tinea Versicolor

Hypopigmented fungal infection on trunk, neck, upper armsResponds well to anti-fungal txCommon


Carrots! Etc. Unlike jaundice, sclera is white


Red cheeks


See fluid-filled vesiclesClustering in simplex?


Scars... arising from injuries or diseaseCommonly on face, around mouth


= ringworm

Pityriasis Rosea

ViralGenerally just on trunkNormally starts w/ one big lesionGenerally gone in 5-6 wks

Ichthyosis Vulgaris

Dried residue of skin exudates (pus, blood, serum)


= cradle capThick yellow to white greasy adherent scales on scalp and foreheadCan use soft comb or brush to get it outGenerally goes away