Nutrition-Related and Skin Conditions

Marasmus

Protein calorie malnutrition, prolonged starvationMuscle wasting, loss of subQ fatCommon causes: anorexia, bowel obstruction, cancer cachexia, chronic illness

Pellagra

From NIACIN deficiencyPigmented keratotic scaling of skinMore prominent in areas exposed to sun

Scorbutic Gums

From Vit C deficiencySwollen, ulcerated, bleeding gums

Follicular Hyperkeratosis

Associated with Vit A or Essential Fatty Acid (like linoleic) deficiencyDry, bumpy skin

Kwashiorkor

Diets mostly carb, little proteinChildren and adultsEdema/third-spacing (low oncotic pressure due to protein def)

Rickets

Due to Vitamin D and Calcium deficiency

Basal Cell Carcinoma

80% of all skin CAIn LOWEST (think BASE) level of epidermisPerly white/translucentSlow growing, rarely mets

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

16% of all skin CAUpper layer of epidermisScaly, red, inflamed, ulceratedMay mets (but not usually)

Actinic Keratosis

Scaling, yellowish, waxy macules and papulesOften on forehead, scalpMust watch for development of skin cancers

Melanoma

4% of skin cancersArise from pigment producing melanocytesMost lethal b/c spreads rapidlyRisk: 1 in 49 for MEN; 1 in 73 for WOMEN

Candida

In skin foldsLike diaper rash

Eczema

Erythematous, papules and vesiclesMay ooze and crustSites: scalp, forehead, cheeks, wrists, elbows, backs of kneesFamily hx of allergies

Psoriasis

Scaly, erythematous patch w/ silvery scales on topSites: scalp, outsides of elbows, knees, lower back & anogenital areas

Vitiligo

MJ!Patches of depigmentationDepigmented MACULES on face, hands, feet, and extensor surfacesMay be hereditary

Cafe au Lait Spot

Uniformly pigmented macule w/ slightly irreg border6+ w/ over 1.5 cm diameter may mean neurofibromatosis

Tinea Versicolor

Hypopigmented fungal infection on trunk, neck, upper armsResponds well to anti-fungal txCommon

Carotemia

Carrots! Etc. Unlike jaundice, sclera is white

Erythema

Red cheeks

Herpes

See fluid-filled vesiclesClustering in simplex?

Impetigo

Scars... arising from injuries or diseaseCommonly on face, around mouth

Tinea

= ringworm

Pityriasis Rosea

ViralGenerally just on trunkNormally starts w/ one big lesionGenerally gone in 5-6 wks

Ichthyosis Vulgaris

Dried residue of skin exudates (pus, blood, serum)

Seborrhea

= cradle capThick yellow to white greasy adherent scales on scalp and foreheadCan use soft comb or brush to get it outGenerally goes away