Medical Ethics

Four Components of Personhood:

neocortical function self-consciousness relational abilityhappiness

What does neocortical function control?

ThinkingDecisionsSelf-awarenessRelationshipsTime perceptionEmotion

How can we reject higher brain death in PVS?

PVS patients have potential for neocortical function Once had neocortical functionHuman form

3 components of Utilitarianism

1) maximum good for highest number of people2) Consequences alone matter3) Each person is equal

How would utilitarian favor organ sales?

In favor:1) serious shortage of organs (only 8,000; 107,000 people died in 2010); many would saved2) Undercut black market3) Give money to poor 4) Both donor and recipient benefit5) Current model leads to judging moral worth of recipients

Utilitarian against organ sales?

Against:1) Poor are exploited for organs; advantage for rich2) Coerces donor to take risks3) Flood market with possibly unhealthy organs

Three tenets of Kant philosophy?

Kantian: 1) act itself matters more than consequences (morally irrelevant)2) People to follow certain rules, or maxims.This is known as the Categorical imperative3) Morality does not rest on results, but rather on sense of duty

Kant favor organ sales?

For:Maxim: never violate personal autonomyCategorical imperative: person can choose to use organs in dire financial circumstances

Kant against organ sales?

Against:1) The act makes people means for others� survival2) Assigns value to people; violates dignity and duty to one�s body3) does not treat people equally4) act violates the driving force behind morality� sake of duty,deontological (may appears so, but itdoes not stem from duty)

Discuss metaphysical, moral, and medical components of Callahan's view on euthanasia

Metaphysical�External world is distinct from the self and has its owncausal dynamism� -we can forestall death, but it is inevitableMoral-Active cuts off possibility for life while passive does not-human agency vs. action of external nature-life was being sustained by artificial means, disease took overMedical-Active goes against doctor�s obligations to welfare of patient-Passive allows physicians to do what�s best for patient

How can you believe we should still tell family about removing life support?

1) Metaphysical: stroke caused death and was inevitable2) Moral: life sustained artificially�physicians not morally culpable, but still should be fully honest about course of treatment3) Medical: physicians believed her welfare was best kept by removing support. Continuing support would only cause more harm