Sociology midterm

Define Sociology?

The study if human behavoirs as they are affected by social interactions within groups, organizations, societies, and the planet.

Define Social interaction

As everyday event in which the people involved take one another into ccount by conciously and unconsciously attaching mean to the situation, interpreting what others are saying, and then responding accordingly

Social facts

Ideas, feelings and ways of behaving "that possess the remarkable property of existing outside the consciousness of the individual.


A matter that can be explained only by factors outside an individuals control and immediate environment.


Personal needs, problems, and difficulties that can be explained as individual shortcomings related to motivation, attitude, ability, character, or judgment


a relatively stable and predictable arrangment among people that has emerged over time to coordinate human interaction and behavior in ways that meetsome social need

sociological imaginaton

the ability to connect seemingly impersonal and remote social forces and historical event to the most basic incidents of an individuals life. the sociological imagination enable poeple to distinguish between perosnal troubles and public issues

industrial revolution

an ongoing process by which mechanized systems of production and transportation have replaced handmade, muscle-driven, laber-intensive systems


the addition of external sources of power, such as coal, oil, or steam, to hand tools and modes of transportation


in marxist theory, the major force that drives social change

means of production

the resources (land, tools, equipment, factories, transportation, and labor) essential to the production and distribution of goods and services


in marxist theory, owners of the means of production who exploit the labor of the proletariat


in marxist theory, individuals who must sell their labor to the bourgeoisie


the ties that bind people to one another in society


the act of severing relationships

egoistic suicide

suicide resulting from weak social ties that fail to attach the perosn to the group

altruistic suicide

suicide resulting from social ties so strong that the self has no life apart from the group

anomic suicide

suicide resulting from social ties distrupted by dramatic change in econimic circumstances

fatalistic suicide

suicide resulting from social ties whose disipline is so oppresssive it offers no change of release

social actions

actions people take in response to others

traditional action

social action that pursues a goal in response to an emotion such as revenge, love, or loyalty

value-relational action

social action that pursues a goal because it is valued, with no thought of its consequences and often without considering the appropriateness of the means chosen to achieve it

instrumental action

social action that pursues a goal after it has been evaluated in relation to other goals and after thorough consideration of the various means to achieve it


a great spiritual voud accompanied by a crisis of meaning. it occurs when people focus so uncritically on the ways they go about achieving a valued goal that they lose sight of that goal

double consciousness

according to dubois " this sene of always looking at ones self thoug hthe eyes of othes, of measuring ones soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity" thr double consciousness inclusdes a sense of two-ness: an american a negro; two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings