Modern Western Civilization Final Part II

Four battles on the Easter Front

Though the German army was advancing, Soviets suddenly held fastBattle of Moscow- Fall 1941- Winter 1942 military evacuation at some point, but no advancement. In late demember, they pushed German army back 100 miles from city, just witheld, not retreatThe Seige of Leningrad- Sept 1941- Jan. 1944 surrounded city for 900 days, starvation, war of agression and destruction, did not surrender, proved they wanted to protect homeland.The Battle of Stalingrad- Fall 1942- Winter 1943 seizing this city meant stopping lubricants fortanks and other machines. Most important battle, became bloodiest in history, illegal for German army to retreat, Soviets surrounded them. After this, all German troops began retreatingBattle of Kursk- summer 1943 Germans tried to use Blitzkrieg, Soviets ready with a counter attack, knew how to absorb the blow and hold the line, forced Germans to retreat. It was last ditch offensive to win the war for Germany.

Franco Prussian War

1870After the King of Spain died, it was Germany's term to appoint a ruler. France did not want this because they felt that Germany was too weak. Threaten to declare war if Prussia does not renounce their claim.Bismark held fast and they went to war. Within a month, France had to surrender. In the process, Prussia also took two territories back for thier country. Process of completing country more or less complete.

Franz Ferdinand

Austria-Hungary archduke that was visiting Serbia. Was assassinated by terrorists June 28th, 1914. Triggired the start of WWI

Friedrich Nietzsche

1844-1900Philosopher who enjoyed imagining a world where God didn't have an active roleMany famous philosophical writings and sayings in?cluding "What does not kill me makes me stronger"Strongest survive, ??Believed Christianity was the worst kind of lie, ?t?h?e?y? ?s?a?y?????? weakness is good, ??h????e? ?s?a?y?s? ??C?h?r?i?s?t?i?a?n?i?t?y? should be replaced with strength and powerInfluential to Nazis

Galapagos Finches

birds that Darwin studied in South America. By comparing it to finches on neighboring islands, Darwin was able to form his theory of evolution

Gavrilo Princip

19 year old member of the terrorist group who planned the assassination of Archduke FerdinandHe was the one who ended up killing the archduke

Georges-Jacques Danton

Leader of the JacobinsRallied civilians to join the fight during the French revolutionGave a moving speech thatr made people rise up in spirit of nationalism.

Giuseppe Garibaldi

1807-1882Italian revolutionary leader who led the fight to free Sicily and Naples from Habsburg empire

Grand Arm�e

1805Name Napolean gave to the French army he had esembled to invade English ChannelDid not achieve primary goals because they had to be re-deployed to defend against Austrian and Russian armies


genodcide of over 6 million jews by the Nazis during WWIIConsidered a modern idea, gives human beings less value


political doctrine that rejects or disregards the �rights� of citizens. It�s in order to make a small state. Iran is a liberal, theocracy, no freedom of speech, election is a scam. N. Korea, one leader chooses all.Illiberalism spread throughout Europe, war showed old governments were too weak. It could take 2 forms, communism, fasicism

Iron Curtain

Term coined by Winston Churchill in 1946Refers to the division of Western Europe, under American influence, from Eastern Europe, under the Soviet Union


Radical French political party that came into existance during French RevolutionExecuted the French king and sought to remake french cultureLeader was Danton

Louis XVI

well meaning, but innefectual king of France. Ruling during the French Revolution. Tried to escape but was caught by rampaging women and forced to stay in the castle. Was eventually guillotined by revolutionaries.


1814- 1824Was appointed King of France after Napolean lost his wars. France became monarchy again conservatives took over again. Need order, not freedomKing for 10 yearsif you accept everyone was unequal, everything will work better, no wars.Age of restorationMonarchy was only temporaryDemocracy remerged in 1830 with a revolution

Louis Phillippe

1830-1848embraced nationalismcalled himself "King of the French" King of the peopleDidn't set himself higher than others, was more approachable

James Watt

scottish inventor that invented the dteam engine in 1769

Jean-Paul Marat

A journalist during the French RevolutionWrote many angry articles that kept up the flow of violenceKilled by another revolutionary follower

John Stuart Mill

1806-1873British philosopherbelieved people could make good choices if gov. allowed them toDo whatever you want as long as you don't hurt yourself or othersFeelings don't count as harm

Joseph Stalin

1879-1953Leader of Soviet UnionLeader of Russia during WWII and Cold WarTried to improve Russia through rapid industrialization and narrowing the idea of communnism to one belief.

July Revolution

French Revolution of 1830Overthrew Charles X and replaced him with Louis-Philippe

Killer Smog

London pollution in 19524,000 people diedshifted to the east and given to other people

Korean War

1950-1953Fight between communist korea and democratic koreaGeneral McArthur sent to help South Korea win, almost went all the way to ChinaEventually, Korea was divided in the middleConsidered one of the moments where the Cold War almost tunred hot

Lizzie van Zyl

child who died in Boehrman conentration campconsidered mentally sick because she couldn't understand language


National anthem of the FrenchCame from the revolution, called for the death of the enemies of FranceMay their impure blood water our landsStrong voice of nationalism

Marshall Plan

American response to WWIICountries could trade with U.S. Funds used to buy food and fuelthe reason we got in trouble was because countries were poor, therefore aggressive and dangerousalmost all western europe recieved grants, especially France and England

Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx

German social scientists that were the founding fathers of communismproduced Communist Manifesto

Maximilien Robespierre

Influential figure for French RevolutionBecame leader and organized the beheading of Louis XVILargely dominated Committee of Public Safety

Maxim Gun

the first self-powered machine gun, invented by the American-born British inventor Sir Hiram Maxim in 1884.

Mikhail Gorbachev

last Soviet leader, appointed 1985thought violence was a short term solutionPerestroika (reconstruction) wanted more economic freedom not every decision would have to come from govIf we�re going to reform, we need protests or we won�t know what needs to be done

Modern Naturalism

Nature- Potentially infinite Universe Humanity is a small speck in a big circle, one little species on a rock Universe isn�t designed by God for redemption, it keeps moving. Decreases dignity of humanity

Mohandas Gandhi

political and spiritual leader of India during the Indian independence movement Trained as lawyer in London, knew how to play legal gamebritish could give up colonies by shaming themLead many movements including Salt March and Quit India

Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact

an agreement officially titled the Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union[1] and signed in Moscow in the early hours of 24 August 1939pledged neutrality by either party if the other were attacked by a third party. It remained in effect until 22 June 1941 when Germany implemented Operation Barbarossa, invading the Soviet Union.

Munich Conference

1938an agreement permitting Nazi German annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland The state of Czechoslovakia was not invited to the conference

Mustard Gas

chemical warfare agents with the ability to form large blisters on exposed skinpeople exposed to mustard gas rarely suffer immediate symptomsUsed in WWI

Napoleon Bonaparte

Elected leader of France after French Revolution, Named himself emperor, calling himself Napolean IWasn't Frenchmilitary geniusforced Italy to be ally in 1797

Napoleon III

the President of the French Second Republic and the ruler of the Second French Empire Elected President by popular vote in 1848, he undertook a coup d'�tat in 1851, becoming dictator before ascending the throne as Napoleon IIIHe ruled as Emperor of the French until September 4, 1870Last monarch of France

National Assembly

Created June 1789start of the French Revolutionwas a law-making body for the countryIt was their right/duty to make constitution

National Socialism

better known as Nazismstresses the belief in the supremacy of an Aryan master racetwo prime beliefs, first: To be great, must be strong. Second, deeper reason they lost, conspiracy of the jews that want to take over the world and destroy germany

There isn�t a harmony in the natural world,

species go extinct unless they find a way to survive. Nature isn�t a friendly place, there is a constant struggle. Losers die, winners prosper.

Nicholas II

1868-1918the last Tsar of RussiaCouldn�t handle change, Tsar didn�t want any change at all. He made an oath ot his father. He doesn�t know what to do, so he�ll keep it exactly the same

New Imperialism

colonial expansion adopted by Europe's powersaggressive competition for overseas territorial acquisitions and the emergence in some colonizing countries of doctrines of racial superiority which purported to explain the unfitness of backward peoples for self-government.

October Revolution

second phase of Russian revolutionoverthrew the Russian Provisional Government and gave the power to the local soviets dominated by BolsheviksLead by Bolsheviks

Operation Barbarossa

the code name for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II that began on 22 June 1941military offensive in historyoperational goal was rapid conquest of the European part of the Soviet Union

Otto von Bismarck

Prime Minister of Prussia from 1862�1890 oversaw the unification of Germany

Over the Top

strategy in trench warfarejump out of trenches and jump out catching them by surprise. They never had enough time to do this


Means "reconstruction"Refers to Gorbachev's attempts to reform the communist system

Prague Spring

1968, Alexander Dubcek became leader in Check Communist but wanted to reform socialism, more freedom of expressionOutpouring of support. Warm and sunny time. Optimism filled the country, there could be a middle ground between communism and capitalism. Soviet union were scared. Soviets sent in tanks in 1968 and reinstalled soviet order, forced Dubcek to resign, his ideas were put down. Soviets thought they were being strong, but they ruined the sympathy that some in the west had. They put down a peaceful democr?atic movement

Revolutions of 1848

French Prime Minister tries to calm people from faminenational guards sided with riotersevery male adult can vote nowOther countries tried to start revolutions but failed