Step_2_Cardio

Harsh blowing holosytolic murmur, S3, Wide split S2. Type of murmur?

Mitral Regurgitation

Opening snap after S2, Diastolic rumble, Loud S1, possible a-fib.

Mitral Stenosis

Bounding pulses, S3, widened pulse pressure, early diastolic decrescendo murmur @ apex/l sternal border; capillary pulses in nail beds.

Aortic regurge

Weak prolonged pulse, weak S2, valsalva decreases murmur, dilated Aorta on CXR, ejection click

Aortic Stenosis

Which murmur is associated with panic disorder?

Mital Prolapse

S4, systolic murmur, apical impulse; Boot heart on CXR.

Hypertrophic obstructive Cardiomyopathy

S3, systoic and diastolic murmurs possible, balloon like heart on CXR.

Dilated Cardiomyopathy

CHF symptoms, Ascites, JVD; normal heart on CXR.

Restrictive (Sarcoidosis or Amyloidosis)

Pansystolic murmur at lower left sternal border, loud pulmonic S2, systolic thrill

VSD

Strong impulse over lower L sternal border, wide fixed split S2, systolic ejection murmur at upper left sternal border

ASD

Wide pulse pressure, continuous murmur at second L intercostal space, loud S2, bounding pulses

PDA

Early cyanosis, dyspnea, fatigue, child squats for relief during hypoxemic event; systolic ejection murmur at left sternal border; single S2.

Tetralogy of Fallot

Name three a-blockers. What are the side effects?

Prazosin, Doxazosin, terazosinSE: postural hypotension, headache, rebound HTN

What are the side effects of beta blockers?

sexual dysfunctionbronchoconstrictionHDL reductionincreased Triglycerides

Give examples of Ca channel blockers. What are the side effects?

Nondihydropyridines: Diltiazem, verapamilDihydropyridines: nifedipine, amlodapineSE: Hypotension, headache, constipation, increased reflux

What are the side effects of statins?

Myositisincreased LFTs

What are the effects of statins?

Big decrease in LDLLittle increase in HDLLittle decrease in trig

Benefits and side effects of Ezetimibe?

decreases LDLcan cause myalgias

Name two fibric acids. Benefits. Side effects.

Gemfibrozil, FenofibrateBig decrease in trig, mod decrease in LDLSE: Myositis, increase LFT

Benefits of Niacin? Side effects?

Increases HDL, Mod decrease to LDLSE: facial flushing, nausea, paresthesias, pruritis, insulin resistance, increased gout