Anatomy Terms


Layers of fibrous connective tissue that separates an individual skeletal muscle from adjacent muscles and hold it in position. Encloses muscle.


Fascia


A cordlike oro bandlike mass of white fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone.


Tendon


A sheet of connective tissue that attaches muscles.


Aponeuroses


Overdevelopment of muscles


Muscular hypertrophy


Decrease in size and strength of muscles.


Atrophy


Muscle fibers are separate rather than organized into sheets.


Multiunit Smooth Muscle


Composed of sheets of spindle-shaped cells. (Occurs in sheets)


Visceral Smooth Muscle


Rhythmic waves of muscular contraction in wall of certain tubular organs.


Peristalsis


End of a muscle that attaches to a relatively immovable part.


Origin


The end of a muscle attached to a movable part.


Insertion


Muscle responsible for a particular body movement.


Prime mover


A muscle that assists the action of a prime mover


Synergist


A muscle that opposes a prime mover


Antagonist


Bending parts at a joint so angle between decreases


Flexion


Straightening parts at a joint so angle between increases


Extension


Excess extension of the parts at a jiont, beyond anatomical


Hyperextension


Lowering a part


Depression


Raising a part


Elevation


Moving a part away from the midline


Abduction


Moving a part toward the midline


Adduction


Moving a part backward


Retraction


Movement turning a body part on its longitudinal axis


Rotation


Moving a part forward


Protraction


Moving a part so that its end follows a circular path


Circumduction


Turning the foot so that the soles face medially


Inversion


Turning the hand so that the palm is facing upward or anteriorly


Supination


Turning the hand so that the palm is facing downward or posteriorly


Pronation


Turning the foot so that the sole faces leterally


Eversion


A band of tough connective tissue that extends from the xiphoid process to the symphysis pubis


Linea alba


Degenrative disease in which fibrous connective tissue replaces skeletal muscle tissue


Fibrosis


Inflammation of fibrous connective tissues, especially in the muscle fascia


Fibrositis


Any muscular disease


Myopathy


Soreness on the front of the leg due to straining the anterior leg muscles, often as a result of walking up and down hills.


Shin splints


Condition in which the neck muscles, such as the sternocleidomastoids, contract involuntarily


Torticollis