Short Nutrition


Complete Protein


has all essential amino acids (good quality)animal proteins


Incomplete Protein


plants


How Vegetarians Get Protein


legumes (dried beans), peanut butter sandwich, rice and beans, tortilla and beans


End Products of Proten Digestion


amino acidsdipeptides


Protein Needs


8 g/ kg body weight


HDL


high density lipoproteinshealthy carriers of fatclean-up cholesterol and take to livergood


LDL


low density lipoproteinsbad


Hydrogenation


adding hydrogens to unsaturated fats to make them saturated fatsmargarine


Hydrogenation Bond


turn cis fats into trans fats


Cis Fats


naturalhydrogens on same side of carbon chain


Trans Fats


flips hydrogens to opposite side of carbon chainbad


Low Cholesterol


less than 20 mg


Cholesterol Free


less than 2 mg


Dietary Goals


30% total fat (10% sat, 10% poly, 10% unsat)60% carbs10% proteins


Fat Digestion End Products


monoglyceridesglycerolfatty acids


Foods Rich in Cholesterol


milkcheeseeggsmeatanimal products


Calculating Total Fat


150g CHO, 15g fat, 4g protein150g x 4 k/g = 600 kcals15g x 9 = 1354g x 4 = 16600 + 135 + 16 = 751


Calculating Nutrients in Grams


2400 kcals, 45% fat2400 x .45 = 1080 kcals1080/9 = 120g


Soluble Fiber Benefits


prevents heart disease (lowers cholesterol)increases stool moisturelowers glucose absorption


Insoluble Fiber Benefits


reduces risk of diverticulosisincrease stool weight and frequencydecreases transit timeprevents constipation (hemorhoids)reduces risk of colon cancer


Fiber Food Sources


whole grainsfruitsveggiesbeans


Sucrose


glucose + fructosetable sugar


Fructose


glucose + glucosefruit sugar


lactose


glucose + galactosemilk sugar


Glycogen


storage form of glucose in liver and muscles in limited amounts


Monounsaturated Fat


1 double bondsources: olive, canola, peanut oil, avacados, nutsoleic fatty acid


Saturated Fat


no double bondsmax # of hydrogenssources: coconut, palm, palm kernal oilssteric fatty acid


Polyunsaturated Fat


sources: corn, cottonseed, flaxseed, safflower, sunfower, sesame seed, soybean, wheat germlinoleic, linolenic, arachidonic, EPA, DHA


Omega 3's


decrease platelet stickinesssources: tuna, salmon, anchovies, sardines


Type 1 Diabetes


juvenile onsetno insulin


Type 2 Diabetes


insulin resistancetypically overweight


Whole Grain Parts


bran: fiber, vitamins, mineralsendosperm: starch, proteingerm: fats, vitamins, minerals


DRI


dietary reference intakeRDA, EAR, AI, UL


RDA


recommended dietary allowancebased on age and genderintended for a groupset a 98% of population (2 st. dev. above avg)intended for healthy people


EAR


estimated average requirementsbased on average


AI


adequate intakeinsufficient data


UL


tolerable upper level intakeabove is toxic


Peristalsis


mechanical breakdown of food


Energy


carbs, fats, protein


Protein Digestion


if missing amino acid, digestion stops


Glucose


excess is stored as glycogen in liver and musclesif exceeds that, stored as fat


Choosing a Margarine


first ingredient = liquid oilsoft in tubtrans fat free


Nutrient Density


nutrient content in relation to caloriesnutrients should be higher


Preventing Unsaturated Fat from Spoiling


air-tight, non-metallic, container kept away from light and refrigeratedantioxidants (BHA, BHT, vit. D)hydrogenation