Short Nutrition

Complete Protein

has all essential amino acids (good quality)animal proteins

Incomplete Protein


How Vegetarians Get Protein

legumes (dried beans), peanut butter sandwich, rice and beans, tortilla and beans

End Products of Proten Digestion

amino acidsdipeptides

Protein Needs

8 g/ kg body weight


high density lipoproteinshealthy carriers of fatclean-up cholesterol and take to livergood


low density lipoproteinsbad


adding hydrogens to unsaturated fats to make them saturated fatsmargarine

Hydrogenation Bond

turn cis fats into trans fats

Cis Fats

naturalhydrogens on same side of carbon chain

Trans Fats

flips hydrogens to opposite side of carbon chainbad

Low Cholesterol

less than 20 mg

Cholesterol Free

less than 2 mg

Dietary Goals

30% total fat (10% sat, 10% poly, 10% unsat)60% carbs10% proteins

Fat Digestion End Products

monoglyceridesglycerolfatty acids

Foods Rich in Cholesterol

milkcheeseeggsmeatanimal products

Calculating Total Fat

150g CHO, 15g fat, 4g protein150g x 4 k/g = 600 kcals15g x 9 = 1354g x 4 = 16600 + 135 + 16 = 751

Calculating Nutrients in Grams

2400 kcals, 45% fat2400 x .45 = 1080 kcals1080/9 = 120g

Soluble Fiber Benefits

prevents heart disease (lowers cholesterol)increases stool moisturelowers glucose absorption

Insoluble Fiber Benefits

reduces risk of diverticulosisincrease stool weight and frequencydecreases transit timeprevents constipation (hemorhoids)reduces risk of colon cancer

Fiber Food Sources

whole grainsfruitsveggiesbeans


glucose + fructosetable sugar


glucose + glucosefruit sugar


glucose + galactosemilk sugar


storage form of glucose in liver and muscles in limited amounts

Monounsaturated Fat

1 double bondsources: olive, canola, peanut oil, avacados, nutsoleic fatty acid

Saturated Fat

no double bondsmax # of hydrogenssources: coconut, palm, palm kernal oilssteric fatty acid

Polyunsaturated Fat

sources: corn, cottonseed, flaxseed, safflower, sunfower, sesame seed, soybean, wheat germlinoleic, linolenic, arachidonic, EPA, DHA

Omega 3's

decrease platelet stickinesssources: tuna, salmon, anchovies, sardines

Type 1 Diabetes

juvenile onsetno insulin

Type 2 Diabetes

insulin resistancetypically overweight

Whole Grain Parts

bran: fiber, vitamins, mineralsendosperm: starch, proteingerm: fats, vitamins, minerals


dietary reference intakeRDA, EAR, AI, UL


recommended dietary allowancebased on age and genderintended for a groupset a 98% of population (2 st. dev. above avg)intended for healthy people


estimated average requirementsbased on average


adequate intakeinsufficient data


tolerable upper level intakeabove is toxic


mechanical breakdown of food


carbs, fats, protein

Protein Digestion

if missing amino acid, digestion stops


excess is stored as glycogen in liver and musclesif exceeds that, stored as fat

Choosing a Margarine

first ingredient = liquid oilsoft in tubtrans fat free

Nutrient Density

nutrient content in relation to caloriesnutrients should be higher

Preventing Unsaturated Fat from Spoiling

air-tight, non-metallic, container kept away from light and refrigeratedantioxidants (BHA, BHT, vit. D)hydrogenation