Bones flash cards


periosteum


Fibrous membrane surrounding bone


Articular cartilage


Layerof hyaline cartilage found at joints covering epiphysis


Epiphysis


Found at each end of the long bones


Diaphysis


Shaft of long bones between the bone's epiphyses

The marrow cavity is located in the hollow center


Endosteum


Membrane that lines the medullary/marrow cavity


Marrow cavity


The hollow center of the diaphysis of a long bone. It is lined with spongy bone and stores marrow


Spongy bone


Bone structure where there is not heavy stressed coming from one direction or where stresses come from many different directions


Compact bones


AKA dense boneSeals the outer surface of bones and found wherever stress on bone arrives from only one dirction


Lacunae


Sm spaces in matrix between the lamellae of an osteon

Osteocytes are found here


Osteon


Supportive columns within compact bone.Looks like a cross cut of a tree trunk


Osteocytes


Mature bone cells that maintain mineral and protein components of bone matrix.Found within the lacunae


Canaliculi


Small diffusion channels radiating outward from a central canal.Facilitates nutrients, gas and waste exchange between the blood and bone


Central canal


AKA Haversian CanalLongitudinal canal in center of an osteon that contains blood vessels and nervesIntersects with perforating canal


Perforating canals


Canal running perpendicular to osteons and intersecting with central canalsServes as a passage for nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels through the periosteum and into the bone


Trabeculae


The lattice or meshwork of bony struts found in spongy bone. Space inbetween trabeculae house red marrowUnlike compact bone - NO osteons!


Circumferential lamellae


The ring like structures that occur underneath the periosteum and wrap around the entire boneCircumferential lamellae are added as bone grows in diameter


Interstitial lamellae


Found between intact osteons and are remanents of old osteons that have been partially removed as the bone remodels


Concentric lamellae


The calcified matrix rings of an osteon


Long bones


Bones comprised of 2 epiphysis and diaphysis


Short bones


No epiphysis, bones almost as wide as they are long, boxy shaped


Sesamoid bones


Bones that form inside of tendonsThe largest sesamoid bone is the patella and looks like a nut


Flat bones


Thin and platelike bones but they can be shaped or curved like the skull or ribs


Irregular bones


Bones that do not fit in the other categoriesExamples: vertebrae


Sutural bone


Usually in skull, they occur where interlocking joints of the skull branch and isolate a small piece of bone.


Process


Any projection or bump


Ramus


Extension of a bone making an angle with the rest of the structure


Trochanter


Large, rough projection


Tubercle


Small, rounded projection


Crest


Prominent ridge


Line


Low ridge


Spine


Pointed process


Head


Expanded articular end of an epiphysis, separated from the shaft by the neck


Condyle


Smooth, rounded articular process


Trochlea


Smooth, grooved articular process shaped like a pulley


Facet


Small, flat articular surface


Fossa


Shallow depression


Sulcus


Narrow groove


Foramen


Rounded passageway for blood vessels or nerves


Canal


Passageway through the substance of a bone


Fissure


Elongated cleft


Sinus or Antrum


Chamber within a bone, normally filled with air