37 lymph system


erosions that form in the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum resulting in an acid/pepsin imbalance


peptic ulcers


erosions in the stomach that are correlated to exposure to irritants such as NSAIDS, smoking, allergens, alcohol H.Pylori, infections etc


gastric ulcers


clients with this type of ulcer usually complain of pain 1-2 hours after eating


gastric ulcer patients


type of gastric ulcer that form when gastritis become erosive and start to bleed


stress ulcer


clients with this type of ulcer usually complain of pains 2-4 hours after eating or may exhibit no pain


duodenal ulcer


ulcers in the duodenum


duodenal ulcer


inflammation of the veriform appendix


appendicitis


what two things could be ordered to confirm inflammation in the appendiceal area


barium enemaultrasound


half way between the umbilicus and the right iliac crest


mcburney's point


which quadrant is mcburney's point assessed


RLQ


removal of the appendix


appendectomy


_____ is when pain occurs when fingers are pressed into the rlq and then released suddenly


rebound tenderness


saclike protrusions of the intestinal wall


diverticula


condition of the colon in which multiple diverticula are present


diverticulosis


the exact cause of diverticulosis is _________


unknown


a surgically created opening from the colon to the abdominal wall to relieve either a disease or functional problem in the large intestine


colostomy


surgical opening between a cavity and the surface of the body


stoma


what diet are diverticulosis patients put on


fiber diet


term used to describe crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis


inflammatory bowel disease


_____ is characterized by lesions that effect the entire thickness of the bowel and can occur anywhere throughout the colon and small intestine


crohn's disease


fatty stools


steatorrhea


characterized by mucosal lesions occurig typically in the rectal area and sigmoid colon and progressing throughout the colon


Uulcerative colitis


how is IBD diagnosed


endoscopic examination with a biopsy


opening created in the small intestines


ileostomy


output from an ileostomy is a thin liquid usually of a yellowish greenish color


effluent


_____ refers to symptoms such as cramping, pain, bloating, constipation, or diarrhea


irritable bowel syndrome


scar tissue in the abdomen from previous surgeries or crohn's disease is called ____


adhesions


twisting of the bowel on itself


volvulus


when a wall of the muscle weakens and the intestine protrudes through the muscle wall


hernia


inflammation of the peritonium, the membranous covering of the abdomen


peritonitis


swollen vascular tissues in the rectal area


hemorrhoids


characterized by hard infrequent stools that are difficult to pass


constipation


refers to the chronic, degenerative changes in the liver cells and thickening of surrounding tissue that result from the liver repairing itself after chronic inflammation


cirrhosis


inflammation of the gallbladder


cholecystitis


concentrations of mineral salts


calculi


presence of gallstones or calculi


cholelithiasis


abnormal growth of tissue that protrudes into the colon


polyps


______ cancer is rare


liver


a person is obese if their BMI is _____


30 or greater


a person is morbidly obese if their BMI is ______


40 or greater


urinary frequency especially at night


nocturia


the study of disorders of the urinary system


urology


nocturia, burning, bloody urine, high BP, swelling in the face, and pain the small of the back are all warning signs for ________


kidney disease


the desire to urinate


urgency


process of expelling urine from the urinary bladder


micturation or voiding


the production of red blood cells and their release by the red bone marrow


erythropoesis


where are the kidneys located


below the false ribs in the retroperitonial space


where is a distended bladder palpated


above the symphisis


when the bladder becomes full and distended and urine leaks out is called


overflow incontinence


severe pain in the kidney that radiates to the groin that may occur impairing urination


renal colic


pus in the urine


pyuria


meats, fish, poultry, eggs, cereals, cranberries, and plums are a type of _________ foods


acid ash


crushing calculus with noninvasive waves


lithotripsy


_____ fight infection and assist with immunity


WBC


white blood cells are also called


leukocytes


red blood cells are also called


erythrocytes


there is generally how much RBC in an adult


4.5 - 6.1 million/mm3


true or false

RBC's have a nucleus
True False


false they do not have a nucleus


how much blood does the heart pump per minute


5- 6 liters per minute


what does blood consist of


RBC, WBC, and platelets


what does blood do when it is pumped through the body


it carries essential substances to the tissue and removes waste products.


what does the lymph system consist of


lymph vessels, nodes, and organs


what is the function of the lymph


assist with immunity, control edema, and absorb digested fat


what are formed elements of plasma


WBC, RBC, and platelets


_____ also oxygenates body tissues


RBC


what are the three granulytes


neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils


_____'s main function is to digest and kill microorganisms


neutrophils


immature nuetrophils are called


bands


the life span of a platelet is


10 days


if there is no antigen on the RBC membrane the client has _____ blood type


O


lymphocytes and monocytes life span


few days to years


nuetrophils, basophils, eosophils life span


few hours to days


normal WBC count


4100 - 10800 mm


homologous transfusion means a transfusion from


a donor


autologous transfusion means from


self


meats, fish, raisins, dried fruit, green vegetables, dried beans and eggs are all examples of _____ rich food


iron


iron deficiency anemia, aplastic anemia, pernicious anemia, acquired hemolytic anemia, and sickle cell anemia are disorders of ______


RBC


leukemia and agranulocytosis are disorders of _______


WBC


reduced number of granulocytes


agranulocytosis


reddish purple patches on the skin


purpura


a syndrome that occurs because of primary disease process or condition


Dissiminated intravascular coagulation


inherited bleeding disorder that lack a clotting factor


hemophilia


occuring without a known cause


idiopathic


rare lymphoma that usually arises as a painless swelling in a lymph node


hodgkins disease


5th most common cancer in the world


non hodgkins disease


Heart pumps ------ of blood per minute through adult circulatory system


5 to 6 liters


�Lymphatic system Separate vessel system with two
main functions:


�Transport excess fluid from interstitial spaces to circulatory system

�Protect body from infections


superficial lyph nodes that can be palpated


neckgroinaxilla


�Bone marrow decreases or stops
functioning

�Client not making enough blood
cells

�Symptoms:

�Fatigue, weakness, fever,
palpitations, headaches, mouth ulcers, petechiae, gingival bleeding, and epistaxis

�Treatment:

�Bone marrow transplants and
medications


aplastic anemia