BIOLOGY


What is a hypothesis?


an explanation made on observations


List the variables used in an experiment and what they do


Independent: the variable being tested. Values are set/systematically altered by the investigatorDependent: the variable which changes due to the independent, the variable being recordedControlled: The fixed variables, ones which keep the experiment fair and equal


Define Qualitative variables


Qualitative variables are non numerical, eg. sex, colour, presence or absence of feature


Define Quantitative variables & what are the 2 types


Numerical variable, eg. height of family, number of litter (babies)1. Continuous: height2. Discontinuous: litter


What is the difference between a treatment, sample and trial?


Treatment: well defined conditions applied to sample units (eg. test tubes)Sample: a sub-set of a whole to estimate the values that might have been obtained if every individual or response was measured (made up of sample units)Trial: the repeat of an investigation at a different time


What is biodiversity?


The diversity of plants, animals, fungi, monera and protista


Why is biodiversity important?


Biologists can then study living organisms to help find out how they became so diverse, how they function and how they interact with othersThis can manage the world's limited resources, help in medicine to cure diseases, control pests & for human benefit.


What is the first step in conserving the world's biodiversity?


To collect, catalogue and name the organisms (classification)


How can organisms be grouped?


Environment, Habitat, Food source, Human impact


What are three ways in which organisms can be grouped by human impact?


1. Poisonous2. Beneficial3. Dangerous


What is classification?


another way of describing the process of grouping


What can be classified due to classification?


organisms, ecosystems and communities


What are the three ways of classifying ecosystems or communities?


1. Climate2. Dominant organisms3. Habitat


What is a biome and give an example?


A biome is a broad category of ecosystems or communities according to their climate. Eg. Australia's temperate climate forests are evergreen forest biomes


What are the three main classification habitats?


MarineFreshwaterTerrestrial (land)


Give an example of a classification of dominant organisms


The great barrier reef is an ecosystem with dominant organisms of coral.Saltbush community is dominated by saltbushes (as well as other plants but salt bush being the most dominant)


How are communities described by the CSIRO structure?


They are given names based on their overall structural appearance rather than dominant species


What are the main structural differences between a closed forest, open forest and woodland?


Dominance of trees, shrub height and density, and grasses


Give some examples of freshwater systems


RiversLakesPonds


What is taxonomy?


Taxonomy is the process in naming the groups of life


What are some useful way in classifying organisms?


External appearanceInternal anatomyGenetic information


What are the 5 Kingdoms?


AnimaliaPlantaeFungiProtistaMonera


What are Prokaryotes?


Monera kingdom'pro' means before & 'karyon' means nucleus


What are Eukaryotes?


Plants, animals and fungi. Eukaryote cells have a cell membrane, a 'true' nucleus and other specialised parts


What is monera?


Largest group of organisms


How many cells do most Protista organisms have?


1There are protista organisms with many cells though, but they aren't as diverse


Give some types of Protista organisms


AlgaeProtazoa


What are the 2 types of Plants there are?


Vascular and non-vascular


What phylum are non-vascular plants?


Phylum: Bryophyta


What type of vascular plants are there?


Seed (Gymnosperms mean seed only, or Angiosperms mean seed with flowers)Seedless


What is the difference between monocot and dicot flowers?


Monocot: 1 seed leef!!!! Also flower parts are in multiples of 3. Eg. Lilies, daffodils, palms and grassDicot: 2 seed leafs!!!!! Also flower parts occur in multiples of 4 or 5. Eg. carrots, trees, shrubs


Phylums within Animalia and their main structural differences


P: Rotifera- wheel of cillia used for eating and movingP: Porifera- no organs or nervous system, aquatic, asexual. Eg. SpongesP: Cnidaria- Radial symmetry, stinging cells. Eg. jellyfishP: platyhelminthes- flat body, mouth no anus. Eg. tapewormP: Nematoda- tiny, unsegmented roundworms. Eg. HookwormsP: Annelida- cylindrical, move by shaping water in body. Eg. earthworms, leechesP: Mollusca- mixed symmetry. Eg. snails, mussels, squidP: Arthropoda- classes such as Crustacea, Arachnida, Insecta and DiplopodaP: Echinodermata- radial symmetry. Eg. starfish, sea urchin, sea cucumberP:Chordata- classes such as Chorndrichthyes (cartilaginous fish), Osteichthyes (bony fish), Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia


Classifications in order from broadest to narrowest in Kingdoms


KingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies


Why can't hybrids be classified as a specie?


Because there aren't enough of them. They are only the rare offspring from 2 different species


What is the Binomial system?


Naming species by 2 latinised words. One being the genus name and the other the specie


Why are Species named using Latin?


Because Latin is a dead language, meaning it wont change.


What is a Dichotomous key?


An identification key in which one brach leads to 2 branches at each step. Eg...


What substances will easily pass through membranes?


Tiny molecules and large oil soluble substances


What does Impermeable mean?


Can't pass through


What are membranes impermeable to?


Most water soluble moleculesionsPolar molecules


What are membranes permeable to?


lipid-soluble substancestiny moleculesSmall uncharged moleculesLarger water soluble substances


What is Diffusion?


Diffusion is the net movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration.


What type of process is Diffusion?


Passive


What does diffusion need in order to go?


concentration gradient


What is being diffused?


The solute is being diffused in the solvent


What is Osmosis?


Osmosis is the passive net movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane, from an area of high concentration (an area where there are more free molecules) to an area of less concentration (less water molecules)The water is diffusion along it's own conentration gradient.


explain this image


When a solute is added to water, the water molecules become attached. In a dilute solution though, there are more free water molecules than a concentrated one. When a semi permeable membrane separates a dilute and concentrated solution, the free water molecules will cross the membrane in both directions. However, since there are more free water molecules in the dilute solution, there will be a net movement of water molecules from the dilute solution to the concentrated.