Juvenile Delinquency


Purtumalistic Nuclear Family:


Mom and Dad raise family but mother is primary nurture and dad is separated in order to provide and be the disciplinarian

This is the new model caused damage in families because relationship of father


Family Dynamics


FOUR Main ones

Effect of Broken Family

Effect of Interpersonal conflict within family

Quality of family relationship Effect of abuse and neglect


Effect of Broken Family


Research shows a clear correlation of broken homes (divorce) and criminality

Resource attenuation


Resource attenuation:


two providers vs. 1�less attention supervision, economic limitation, and child can become neglected because one person is being stretched to do a two-person job.

Children idealize their parents and blame themselves for the separation


Effect of Family Conflict


1957 self report study: the more family conflict reported the higher rate of criminality in the family

Children who watch abuse or are abused themselves have an equal chance of becoming a delinquent

Children learn to model behavior so if they see parents fighting it could teach them to become criminals (positive/negative reinforcement)


Which is worse?? Divorce or conflict


Conflict is worse


Effects of child abuse


Kempe Henry: the father of child abuse research

Defined it as non-accidental physical injury (Battered child syndrome)

Eventually emotional mental ect forms of abuse were added


Child abuse definition:


Any physical or emotional trauma for which no reasonable explanation can be found such as discipline. Different forms such as physical and sexual


Sexual Abuse


FOUR effects

Stigmatignation

Powerlessness:

Betrayal

Traumatic sexualization

Authorities do not usually know because these crimes happen in private


Traumatic sexualization:


damaged sexual identity and expression (become gay, victimized or become abusers in the future)


Betrayal


inability to trust and form close relationships


Powerlessness:


feelings of weakness


Stigmatignation:


feeling of being disgusting and filthy


TWO legal systems that address child abuse


Criminal Law system Dependence system

When you have a criminal portion you will also have a dependence portion


Criminal System


Purpose is to punish them and detour others from doing the same thing


Criminal System Charges


Incest: Having intercourse with a family member that is whole or half blooded

Rape: Without consent (vaginal intercourse @ Pitt)

Assault: parent physically harms child


Dependence system:


Sole purpose is to take care protect and help the child being abused


Dependence Child


Child without a proper parental cares or control, subsistence education and required by law. (How Dependence system defines a child�allows court to get involved and remove child.


If a child is found dependent..


Can be sent home but order therapy supervision counseling

Temporary removed (foster care) till parent gets it together

Permanent removal of child: situation cant be fixed so take child away


Reporting sexual assault


Hotlines have been established which link to social services

Mandatory reporting laws: Anybody that works with kids and suspect anything they must report or be penalized


Steps to deal with abuse


Hotline

Go to investigate

File dependency in court

Court trial


Guardian Ad Litum


An adult attorney that represents child in court


Testimony by Children


Big Problem

Solved with the use of �hear say� testimony


Hear say testimony:


An out of court statement that is introduced to prove the truth of the matter certain


THREE primary methods of data collection


Official statistics


Self report data Victim data


Official Statistics:


Stats acquired from official sources.

Can also be used because they show trends

Tell us that more crimes occurs in inner city with minority population


Uniform crime reports:


Official Statistics:

acquired from local police department around country. FBI acquires and publishes VCR yearly. Tally number of arrests made, the type of crimes and number of crimes. Also, break down crimes by age and sex.

17% arrests involve a person under 18;

28% of index arrest involve people less than 18
70% of all arrests occur in people under the age of 18

20% of index crimes occur in people under age 18

People under age of 18 = 8% of population


Index Crimes:


most serious crimes that are reported


Part Two Crimes:


less serious crimes


Official Statistics CONCULSION


Juveniles commit the most crimes according to uniform crimes report


THREE Flaws of official statistics:


Unreported crimes are not being reported. Known as Dark Figured Data

Dark Figured Data: crime that is not reported

If no arrest is made there is no information on the criminal (80% of reported crimes do not lead to an arrest)

Not all crimes are enforced�police do not have the resources


Self-Report Data


Questions (Interviews, survey about crimes)


Benefits of Self-Report Data


They are cross-sectional: can compare crimes from criminal groups and non-criminal groups.

You get more in-depth personal information on the perpetrator (can ask questions about any part of their life that is relevant)


Negatives of Self-Report Data


The questioner decides what they subjectively believe is a good question (The researchers bias takes away the objectivity)


**Self Report Studies tell us�


Consistently show that number of crimes is equal everywhere and is not a higher rate in inner cities

Prove the dark figure problem of official studies


Problems with self report


Kids may not know it�s a crime

People may not answer questions honestly


Victim Data


Questions victim


National crime victims survey


Asks how many crimes committed in household, analyses characteristics of victims and observable characteristics of perpetrator


Problems with Victim Data


Honesty, bias of researcher


What does Victim Data tell us


Show us that 50% of violent crimes are not reported **

The statistical likelihood of being victimized declines with a decrease in age**

Statistically males are the most victimized compared to women (boys are aggressive get involved in crimes)**

Statistically people are victimized more by people they know**

Statistically people have higher chance of victimization during the day** More crimes are committed by younger people**
Number of crimes are inversely proportionate to the age crime is being committed

Most people age-out of committing crimesEXCEPTION: Chronic consistent adult offender


Chronic consistent adult offender


commit crime their whole life

The younger they are the higher chance they have of being a chronic consistent adult offender