25 cardiovascular drugs


medications that affect the heart and blood vessels as well as anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents


cardiovascular drugs


drug used to treat cardiac arythmias, hypertension, and angina


propranolol


occur widely in nature or can be prepared synthetically


cardiac glycosides


glycosides that act directly on the myocardium to increase the force of myocardial contractions


cardiac glycosides


this is used primarily in heart failure


cardiac glycosides


fatigue, weakness, dyspnea, cyanosis, increased heart rate, cough, and pitting edema are all symptoms of ________


heart failure


which neurotransmitter does digoxin lower


norepinephrine


digoxin routes of administration


orally or parenterally


the most commonly used cardiac glycoside


digoxin (lanoxin)


the process of establishing the correct therapeutic dose of digoxin for maintaining optimal functioning of the heart without toxic effects


digitalization


if the pulse rate is less than _____ digoxin may need to be withheld


60


______ pulse must be assessed before administering digoxin


apical


the imbalance of this electrolyte is a toxic side effect for digoxin


potassium


what could hyperkalemia or hypokalemia cause


arrythmias


what are some toxic side effects for digoxin


vertigodiplopiacardiac arythmiaselectrolyte imbalance insomniamental disordersheadache fatiguelethargy


double vision (halos)


diplopia


true or false

abrupt withdrawal from digoxin should be avoided
True False


true

med must be gradually reduced


drugs that suppress various types of cardiac arrythmias including atrial ventricular tachycardias.


antiarrythmic agents


what is a vital role for health care practitioners when administering medication


accurate and timely reporting of vital signs


signs of hypotension or bradychardia could lead to ________?


cardiac arrest


what are two ways to detect arrythmia


ekg strip or 24 hour holter monitor


_______ restores normal sinus rhythm in PSVT by slowing conduction time through the AV.


adenosine


adenosine is likly to cause _______


hypotension


an injectible antiarrythmic agent with multiple electrophysiologic activities


adenosine


adenosine common side effects are:


facial flushing, lightheadedness, dyspnea, chest pressure


a class III oral and injectable antiarrythmc


amiodarone


despite its problematic organ toxicity and black box warning this drug is widely used for preventing the recurrence of atrial fibrillation


amiodarone


amiodarone side effects


arythmiashyper/hypothyroidismneurotoxicitynueritisphotosensitivity


the contraindications is for what drug:

2nd or 3rd heart block
sinus bradycardia
syncope
thyroid disease
older adults


amiodarone


where are beta 1 receptors found


heart


where are beta 2 receptors found


lungs


class IV antiarythmic agents


calcium channel blockers


verapamil (calan) and diltiazem (cardizem) are examples of _____ ______ _____


calcium channel blockers


A class IB antiarythmic agent


lidocaine


local anesthetic administered for its antiarythmic effect and membrane stabilizing action


lidocaine


this used to be the first line of defense, but is now the second


lidocaine


lidocaine contraindications


pregnancy, lactation, childrenheart block respiratory depressionhypersensitivity to local anesthetics


if medication is forgotten what is not recommended


double dosing


procainamide, quinidine, and dysopyramide fall under what class of antiarythmics


class IA


propafenone is what class of antiarythmic


class IC


unusal taste, constipation, blurred vision, angina, heart failure, palapations, fatigue headache, dyspnea, rash and weakness are side effects for _______


propafenone


a wide spread epidemic that has affected millions of adults worldwide


hypertension


blood pressure has a strong consistent risk relationship with


cardiovascular disease


what is the purpose of a prehypertension range?


to encourage patients to initiate a healthier lifestyle


DASH diet includes


sodium reductionincreased physical activitymodified alcohol usesmoking cessation


these are side effects for

hypotension
bradychardia


antihypertensives


calcium channel blockers are most effective in treating what types of patients


african americansolder patientspatients with high BP readings


_______ calcium channel blockers should never be used to manage hypertension because of reports of increased risks of myocardial infarction and mortality


short acting


example of ACE inhibitor drugs


captoprilenalapril