25 cardiovascular drugs

medications that affect the heart and blood vessels as well as anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents

cardiovascular drugs

drug used to treat cardiac arythmias, hypertension, and angina


occur widely in nature or can be prepared synthetically

cardiac glycosides

glycosides that act directly on the myocardium to increase the force of myocardial contractions

cardiac glycosides

this is used primarily in heart failure

cardiac glycosides

fatigue, weakness, dyspnea, cyanosis, increased heart rate, cough, and pitting edema are all symptoms of ________

heart failure

which neurotransmitter does digoxin lower


digoxin routes of administration

orally or parenterally

the most commonly used cardiac glycoside

digoxin (lanoxin)

the process of establishing the correct therapeutic dose of digoxin for maintaining optimal functioning of the heart without toxic effects


if the pulse rate is less than _____ digoxin may need to be withheld


______ pulse must be assessed before administering digoxin


the imbalance of this electrolyte is a toxic side effect for digoxin


what could hyperkalemia or hypokalemia cause


what are some toxic side effects for digoxin

vertigodiplopiacardiac arythmiaselectrolyte imbalance insomniamental disordersheadache fatiguelethargy

double vision (halos)


true or false

abrupt withdrawal from digoxin should be avoided
True False


med must be gradually reduced

drugs that suppress various types of cardiac arrythmias including atrial ventricular tachycardias.

antiarrythmic agents

what is a vital role for health care practitioners when administering medication

accurate and timely reporting of vital signs

signs of hypotension or bradychardia could lead to ________?

cardiac arrest

what are two ways to detect arrythmia

ekg strip or 24 hour holter monitor

_______ restores normal sinus rhythm in PSVT by slowing conduction time through the AV.


adenosine is likly to cause _______


an injectible antiarrythmic agent with multiple electrophysiologic activities


adenosine common side effects are:

facial flushing, lightheadedness, dyspnea, chest pressure

a class III oral and injectable antiarrythmc


despite its problematic organ toxicity and black box warning this drug is widely used for preventing the recurrence of atrial fibrillation


amiodarone side effects


the contraindications is for what drug:

2nd or 3rd heart block
sinus bradycardia
thyroid disease
older adults


where are beta 1 receptors found


where are beta 2 receptors found


class IV antiarythmic agents

calcium channel blockers

verapamil (calan) and diltiazem (cardizem) are examples of _____ ______ _____

calcium channel blockers

A class IB antiarythmic agent


local anesthetic administered for its antiarythmic effect and membrane stabilizing action


this used to be the first line of defense, but is now the second


lidocaine contraindications

pregnancy, lactation, childrenheart block respiratory depressionhypersensitivity to local anesthetics

if medication is forgotten what is not recommended

double dosing

procainamide, quinidine, and dysopyramide fall under what class of antiarythmics

class IA

propafenone is what class of antiarythmic

class IC

unusal taste, constipation, blurred vision, angina, heart failure, palapations, fatigue headache, dyspnea, rash and weakness are side effects for _______


a wide spread epidemic that has affected millions of adults worldwide


blood pressure has a strong consistent risk relationship with

cardiovascular disease

what is the purpose of a prehypertension range?

to encourage patients to initiate a healthier lifestyle

DASH diet includes

sodium reductionincreased physical activitymodified alcohol usesmoking cessation

these are side effects for



calcium channel blockers are most effective in treating what types of patients

african americansolder patientspatients with high BP readings

_______ calcium channel blockers should never be used to manage hypertension because of reports of increased risks of myocardial infarction and mortality

short acting

example of ACE inhibitor drugs