harvard chest 10.txt


Calcified pleural plaques:


TB, asbestos exposure, fluid (empyema, hematoma), talc


Pleural thickening + calcification:


old infection, old trauma, asbestos exposure, loculated effusion, empyema, pleural mets, mesothelioma, talc


Extrapleural lesions:


CA (mets, myeloma, esp rib mets), infection (TB, fungus, Actinomycosis), trauma (hematoma), diaphragmatic rupture or paralysis, pectus excavatum, kyphoscoliosis, cervical ribs, congenital fusion of ribs


Elevated diaphragm:


localized eventration, atelectasis, subpulmonic effusion, diaphragmatic paralysis, hernia (hiatal, Morgagni, Bochdalak), ascites, subphrenic mass, pleural mass


Oligemia and/or overinflation:


infection (TB, Staph pneumatocele, viral, parasite), pulmonary HTN, asthma, emphysema, bullae, lobar atelectasis with compensatory hyperinflation, Swyer-James-Macleod syndrome = bronchiolitis obliterans (unilateral hyperlucent lung), PE (Westermark's sign), foreign body or mucus plug (air trapping), lung hypoplasia, scimitar syndrome, mastectomy, congenital bronchial atresia, congenital lobar emphysema, Poland's syndrome (congenital absence of pectoralis muscle), PA stenosis/hypoplasia