harvard chest 9.txt


PTX:


emphysema (ruptured bulla), trauma (rib puncture, ruptured bronchus), iatrogenic (line placement, thoracentesis), any chronic interstitial lung disease or pneumoconiosis, pulmonary fibrosis, spontaneous, ventilator, bronchopleural fistula, infection (Staph), neoplasm (metastatic osteosarcoma), LAM, EG, asthma, PCP, catamenial


Pneumomediastinum:


asthma, trauma, alveolar rupture, ruptured bronchus or esophagus, post endoscopy, Boerhaave syndrome, positive pressure ventilation, chest tube placement, ruptured abdominal viscus, post surgical, pneumo(retro)peritoneum


Pleural effusion:


infectious, tumor (lung CA, mets, lymphoma), CHF (R>L), nephrotic syndrome, renal failure, liver failure, post-surgery (L post-cardiac surgery), post-trauma, mesothelioma, asbestosis, ovarian CA (Meig's syndrome), pancreatitis, Dressler syndrome, CVD, sarcoid, drugs, ascites, PE, leukemia


Chylothorax:


tumor (esp lymphoma), trauma, iatrogenic, idiopathic, LAM, filariasis


Pleural mass:


mesothelioma, benign fibrous tumor, malignant thymoma/lymphoma, mets (esp lung CA), lipoma, , neurofibromas, infection (TB, fungus, Actinomycosis), asbestos-related, trauma, surgery


Pleural mass: rib tumors children ?


EG, ABC, Ewing's, neuroblastoma;


Pleural mass: rib tumors adults ?


mets>myeloma>Paget's, fibrous dysplasia