harvard chest 7.txt


Endobronchial:


tumor (usu sq cell > small cell, carcinoid), mets, TB, hamartoma, papilloma, hemangioma, foreign body, mucus plug, trauma, broncholith


Bronchiectasis:


postinfectious (most common), bronchial obstruction (neoplasm, FB), congenital (CF, Kartageners);


Bronchiectasis: upper lobe ?


CF, TB, radiation, ABPA


Mucoid (bronchial) impaction:


CF, asthma, ABPA, congenital bronchial atresia


Tracheal lumen: increased ?


tracheobronchomegaly, pulmonary fibrosis, tracheomalacia;


Tracheal lumen: decreased ?


saber-sheath (COPD), tracheomalacia, relapsing polychondritis, sarcoid, amyloid, Wegener's, TB and fungal stenosis, tracheopathia osteochondroplastica


Scarring:


prior TB, prior pneumonia, prior PE, prior trauma, prior surgery, radiation, fibrosis


Calcification:


granuloma (TB, fungus), hamartoma, lung CA, vascular, pleural (asbestos exposure, prior pyothorax or hemothorax), sarcoid, silicosis, varicella, mitral stenosis, mets (bone tumor, mucinous tumors, post-chemotherapy), alveolar microlithiasis, parasites


Air fluid level:


lung (abscess, tumor, cyst), mediastinum (esophageal lesion, bronchogenic cyst), pleural (hydroPTX, hemoPTX, pyoPTX), hiatal hernia, achalasia