N302 Ch 3 terms

Cognitive dissonance

The mental discomfort you feel when there is a discrepancy between what you already believe and some new information that does not go along with your view.

Personal value system

Developed over a lifetime that has been extensively shaped by our family, our religious beliefs, and our years of life experiences.


A set of personal beliefs derived from life experiences, interwoven with each other.

Values acquisition

The conscious assumption of a new value

Five core values of professional nursing

Human dignityIntegrityAutonomyAltruismSocial justice

Utilitarian model

Goal-based model that says that the "rightness or wrongness" of an action is always a function of its consequences.

Deontological model

A duty-based model that is person-centered. It incorporates Immanuel Kant's deontological philosophy, which holds that the "rightness" of an action is determined by other factors in addition to its outcome.

Human rights-based model

Based on the belief that each client has basic rights.


The client's right to self-determination


Implies that a decision results in the greatest good or produces the least harm to the client.


Being fair or impartial



Values clarification

A technique that can help you identify and prioritize your values.

Moral uncertainty

Occurs when a nurse is uncertain as to which moral rules (i.e. values, beliefs, or ethical principles) apply to a given situation.

Ethical or moral dilemmas

Arise when two or more moral issues are in conflict.

Moral distress

Results when the nurse knows what is "right" but is bound to do otherwise because of legal or institutional constraints.