La serva padrona, excerpts
Pergolesi1733IntermezzoRecit between Uberto and Serpina, then Accomp. recit by Uberto, then aria by uberto with string ritornello in betweenrecit = speechlike rhythmsaria= very fast notes! "rapid patter", moves to slower melodyaria = da capo formA and B sections present many contrasting moodsbreaks in melody remind of uncertaintyNAWM 101?By Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (1710�1736)?There are only three characters, one of whom is mute.?The plot questions the social hierarchy.?Recitative section ?The opening conversation is set in the standard simple recitative.?As Uberto doubts his actions with Serpina,the orchestra punctuates his thoughts.?The harmonies modulate rapidly, suggesting Uberto�schanging thoughts. ?Aria?Da capo form?Ritornello frames the A section.?The A section has two complete statements of poetic text.?The B section has new text, keys, and musical ideas.?The music projects contrasting moods, unlike Baroque arias.
Cleofide, excerpts Act I, No. 10
HasseOpera Seria1731?Cleofide was composed for Hasse�s wife, Faustina Bordoni, a professional singer.?The da capo aria has contrasting ideas and short phrases.?In the A section, the first vocal statement modulates to the dominant, and the second modulates back to the tonic, E major.?The B section changes to E minor and has a faster triple meter. Very gentle string sectionNAWM 102
The Beggar's Opera, excerpt from scene 13
GayBallad Opera1728IN ENGLISHSTARTS WITH WORDS!?In this scene, Macheath is fleeing from the law and hiding in Polly�s room.?My heart was so free/It roved like a bee is sung by Macheath.?The song parodies the simile aria of Baroque operas (a predicament is described through comparison).?The words are sung to the melody of Come fair one be kind, a courting song.?The tune has a jig character and is in binary form. NAWM 103
Orfeo ed Euridice, excerpt from Act II, scene 1
GluckOpera1762Very intense horn introChromatic motion, clearly intense�The poet Raniero de Calzabigi supplied the libretto.�As with Alceste, in Orfeo Gluck molds the music to the drama.�Two orchestras are used, one of which is for plucked strings imitating the sound of Orfeo�s lyre.�Dissonances and diminished chords create the sense of terror. �The ballet of the Furies�The dance quickly modulates to C minor through chromaticism.�The dance is central to the story.�Orfeo�s song to the Furies�Simple melody, sparse embellishment, and economy of material�The melody has simple phrases.�The Furies periodically respond with �No.�NAWM 104
Creation from The Continent Harmony
BillingsFuging tune1794In English�This is a fuguing tune from The Continental Harmony. �The first half of the piece is homophonic and syllabic.�The second half, the fuging portion, is imitative.�Homophony returns at the end.�The principal melody is in the tenor line.�Parallel fifths and octaves suggest Billings�s lack of training.NAWM 105
Sonata in D Major, K. 119
Domenico ScarlattiKeyboard Sonata1740s3/8one-movement sonatabalanced binary form both halves end with same materialfirst section - many ideas, immediately repeatedharmonically stablesecond section moves thru d min and a min, cad on e min, then circle of fifths back to toniclarge leaps, rushing scales, rapid arpeggios, create brilliant effect"castinet like" rhythms�After the opening tonic, a new phrase imitates the sound of castanets.�A new theme in the minor dominant follows the modulation.�Scarlatti builds to a climax with trills and growing dissonance that includes chords of five and six notes. �The total effect suggests the sound of a Spanish guitar.�Other typical features include wide leaps and hand-crossingNAWM 106
Sonata in A major - second movement, poco adagio
C. P. E. BachKeyboard Sonata1765Lots of notated ornaments for expression purposesrecit stylefourth out of six published sonataswritten for amateursempfindsam (sentimental) styleornamentation serves as a means of expression�From Sechs Clavier-Sonaten f�r Kenner und Liebhaber (composed 1765, published 1779)�The movement features an expressive melody in short phrases.�The form is a type of binary form that can be described as sonata form without development.�Bach also exploits the element of surprise with unexpected turns.�Passages in dialogue or recitative style add to the emotionality.NAWM 107
Symphony in F Major, No. 32, first movement, Presto
SammartiniSymphony1740Starts with the three quarter notes in each partDistinctive first idea, typical of that time period�The symphony is scored for four-part strings and probably harpsichord.�It has three movements (fast�slow�fast), each of which is relatively short. �In the first movement, each half is repeated, and the material heard in the dominant in the first half is repeated in the tonic in the second half.NAWM 108
Sinfonia a 8 in E-flat major, Op. 11, No. 3, first movement
StamitzSymphonyMid 1750smilitant rhythms, horn rhythms, associated with huntingMANNHEIM CRESC.�The work was published in La melodia germanica (1758), a collection of symphonies by several composers.�The work is scored for strings and two oboes and two horns �The transition exploits the famous Mannheim crescendo.�The move to the dominant is highlighted by a lyric and graceful new melody. Following the development, the recapitulation begins with the second themeSonata Form-ish, FIrst theme, Transition, Second Theme, Closing ThemeNAWM 109
Symphony No. 92 in G Major
HaydnSymphony1789�the work derives its name from a 1791 performance at Oxford.�The first movement is in a sonata form.�The slow introduction makes the following allegro sound energetic.�Exposition�The first theme group contains three distinct ideas.�Haydnbegins the second thematic group with the opening idea and a countermelody in the winds. -The closing subject is repetitive and cadential �Development �Modulates through several related keys�The section features sequences, counterpoint, and motivic development.�Recapitulation�Haydn playfully begins the recapitulation with the theme in the flute and with new counterpoint.�In the recapitulation, the second and closing themes appear in the tonic, and the transition is extended and intensified.Known as the Oxford Symphonypresented it at Oxford University4 movementsfast sonata form, slow mvt, minuet, fast finaleFirst mvt = starts w/ slow intro= turns from maj to chromaticism= P contains 3 sections, quiet dominant scalar fig, sudden loud figue on tonicwith leap up to dotted quarter and sixteenth note tumble down, repetetive cadential phraseSlow mvt = ABA' form-period of calm - A sec = rounded binaryMinuet and trio = ABA form overall Final mvt = sonata formharpsichord for basso continuoNEED TRACKS 63-78NAWM 112
String Quartet in E-flat major, Op. 33, No. 2 - fourth movement
HaydnString Quartet1781 Composed for sale ABACA formRondoeffective rondo refrain"The Joke"Humor found throughout mvmnt�The rondo form is an ABACA form.�The binary opening theme has a playful, unfinished character.�The two episodes do not introduce new material.�Haydn heightens drama with extensions and delay.�The exaggerated drama is humorous, creating a witty effect.�Haydn�s wit is especially endearing to players and connoisseurs, but also appeals to inexperienced listeners.NAWM 111
The Creation, Part 1: No. 1, Introduction and No. 2, "In the beginning..."
Haydn�Haydn�s Depiction of Chaos at the beginning of The Creation is remarkable for its harmonies and drama.�The opening unison C is associated with the void before the Creation. �The image of Chaos is created through a number of effects:�vague and fragmentary themes�unexpected wind scales and arpeggios�ambiguous harmonies�progressions that resolve in unexpected ways �In the oratorio, soloists depict angels and other biblical characters, including Adam and Eve.�After the orchestral introduction,the angel Raphael announces the Creation.�When Raphael mentions that the Earth was �without form� the music of the opening is referenced by a turn to E-flat minor�A chorus enters quietly narrating the next moments.�The word light is set with great drama.
The Creation, Part 2: No. 20 and 21, "Let earth bring forth the living creature..."
HaydnOratorio�In these recitatives, the angel Raphael describe the appearance of animals on the Earth.�No. 20 is a secco recitative.f�No. 21 is an accompanied recitative that uses text painting to convey the image of the animals mentioned.�The general pattern is for Haydn to provide the orchestral picture of each animal before the singer�s words provide the clue.