1) Cog Neuro


behavioral neurology


emphasis on linking different regions of the brain with different behaviors and cognition; function and pathology of the nervous system; neurologists work in the clinical setting


neuroscience


study of the structure and function of all aspects of the nervous system; mechanisms of the nervous system�includes neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neurochemistry


cognitive psychology


the study of mental activity as an information-processing problem; how information is processed when we perform a complex task; successful in determining obstacles of a system; can be proposed without considering biological issues


Baddeley & Hitch Model


has two storage buffers: the phonological loop (for acoustic rehearsal code) and the visuospatial sketchpad (visual or spatial code); both controlled by the central executive


cognitive neuroscience


is an interdisciplinary effort to relate mental processes to brain structures; Interaction is bidirectional; the goal being to characterize how various cognitive processes are implemented in the brain


cognitive neuroscience is the integration of 4 disciplines:


neurology, neuroscience, cognitive psychology and computer science/artificial intelligence


Golgi


developed a silver stain that allowed individual neurons to be seen


syncytium


Golgi thought the brain was a continuous mass of tissue with a common cytoplasm


Santiago Ramon y Cajal


came up with the Neuron Doctrine: used Golgi�s stain to show that the brain was made up of individual nerve cells linked together by long extensions


Neuron Doctrine


the belief that brain funcitons are carried out through the synchronized activity of independent neurons


Neuron Doctrine Principles (6):


1) connectional specificity: the neuron is the anatomical unit: is an independent unit/individual cell

2)dynamic polarization: inferred that information entered at one point and exited at another; was a direction/flow of information in the cell

3) neuron is a developmental/embryological unit: during development, the axon grows out of the cell body; it was an evolving unit

4) neuron is a metabolic unit: came from studies in which different parts of neurons were cut and parts of the cell died and parts lived; the axon WILL NOT regenerate after damage

5) if you kill one cell another doesn�tnecessarily die
6) neuron is the basic informationprocessing unit; it�s possible for one neuron to do simple computing


neuron composed of:


1) soma-cell body2) axon-transmitting process3) dendrite-receiving process4) synapse-gap between neurons where transmission takes place


In vertebrates, neurons receive inputs from ________ and pass information down the ___ towards the _______________


dendritesaxonnerve terminals


Nissl stain


stains the rough ER revealing the distribution of cell bodies (somata)


HRP (horseradish peroxidase) filled neuron


a retrograde tracer; taken up by axons and transported back to the cell bodies; used to visualize where the input to a particular neural region originates


Glial cells


structural/metabolic support; myelination of axons; remove debris following injury or cell death; clean-up of extracellular ions and neurotransmitters; guide the migration of neurons during development; makes up selectively permeable blood brain barrier (form tight junctions with endothelial cells that line capillaries and venules)


electrical impulses carry signals ______ a neuron; chemical transmitters carry signals ______ neurons


within; between


Neuromodulators


modulate activity in large regions rather than strictly exciting/inhibiting specific postsynaptic neurons; originate from the cell bodies in the midbrain; ex: Dopamine (DA, created in the ventral tegmental area), norepinephrine (NE, created in the locus coeruleus), serotonin (5-HT)


neurotransmitters


synthesized in cell body OR synaptic terminals; released from synaptic vesicles by presynaptic neuron --- bind to receptors on postsynaptic neuron


examples of excitatory NT's


glutamate (Glu) and acetylcholine (Ach)


examples of inhibitory NT's


Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine (Gly)


Acetylcholine


facilitates learning and memory; affected in Alzheimer�s Disease


Norepinephrine


enhances vigilance & preparation for action


Dopamine (DA)


facilitates movement, reinforces behaviors, helps keep information in short-term (working) memory; affected in Parkinson�s Disease (low levels) and schizophrenia (high levels)


Serotonin


inhibits some behaviors; lots of other effects; affected in Depression


central sulcus


boundary of motor and somatosensory cortices AS WELL AS the seperator between the frontal and parietal lobes


longitudinal fissure


seperates the left and right cerebral hemishperes; runs from rostral to caudal end of the forebrain


cerebral cortex


the brain's outer "bark" layer; the gray matter


sylvian (lateral) fissure


separates temporal lobe from parietal and frontal lobes insula is buried within it


limbic system


corpus callosum, cingulate gyrus, thalamus, olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus


Gyrus


a ridge/outside fold on the cerebral cortex; very top is called the conveitus


Line of Gennari


a band of myelinated axons projecting into layer 4B of the primary visual cortex from layer 4C?; it is visible to the naked eye, and is coterminous with area V1


sulcus


not visible on the outside, the folds inside; the very bottom is called the fundus


Brodmann's Map


cytoarchitectonics


how cells differ between brain regions


whenever there�s a __________ difference in the brain, there�s almost always a __________ difference


structural; functional


aggregate field theory


the notion that the whole brain participated in a behavior; Flourens


electronic conduction


current that is passively conducted throughout the neuron


depolarizations


male the inside of the cell more positive and more likely to generate an action potential; called excitatory postsynaptic potentials


hyperpolarizations


make the inside of the cell less positive and less likely to generate an action potential; called inhibitory postsynaptic potentials


decremental conduction


diminished amplitude of the current at more distant loci


gray matter


forms a continuous cortical sheathl contains cell bodies of neurons and glial cells


white matter


fatty myelin surrounding the axons


tracts


bundles of axons


corticocortical connections


neighboring and distant connections between two cortical regions


anterograde tracers


absorbed at the dendrites or s ome and then diffuse along the axons (ex: radioactively labeled amino acids)


central nervous system


brain and spinal cord


peripheral nervous system


eveything outside the CNS; delivers sensory information to the CNS and carries the motor commands of the CNS to the muscles


commissure


white matter tracts that cross from the left to the right side of the CNS


neocortex


the portion of the cortex that contains 6 man cortical layers and has a high degree of specialization of neuronal organization; composed of areas such as primary sensory and motor cortex; most evolved type of cortex


association cortex


the portion of the neocortex that is neither sensory nor motor


basal ganglia


controls movement; collection of subcortical neuronal groups in the forebreain beneath the anterior portion of the lateral ventricles; 3 subdivisions are the globus pallidus, caudate and putamen


neostriatum


the caudate and putamen combined


diencephalon


thalamus and hypothalamus


brainstem


consists of midbrain, pons and medulla