1) Cog Neuro

behavioral neurology

emphasis on linking different regions of the brain with different behaviors and cognition; function and pathology of the nervous system; neurologists work in the clinical setting


study of the structure and function of all aspects of the nervous system; mechanisms of the nervous system�includes neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neurochemistry

cognitive psychology

the study of mental activity as an information-processing problem; how information is processed when we perform a complex task; successful in determining obstacles of a system; can be proposed without considering biological issues

Baddeley & Hitch Model

has two storage buffers: the phonological loop (for acoustic rehearsal code) and the visuospatial sketchpad (visual or spatial code); both controlled by the central executive

cognitive neuroscience

is an interdisciplinary effort to relate mental processes to brain structures; Interaction is bidirectional; the goal being to characterize how various cognitive processes are implemented in the brain

cognitive neuroscience is the integration of 4 disciplines:

neurology, neuroscience, cognitive psychology and computer science/artificial intelligence


developed a silver stain that allowed individual neurons to be seen


Golgi thought the brain was a continuous mass of tissue with a common cytoplasm

Santiago Ramon y Cajal

came up with the Neuron Doctrine: used Golgi�s stain to show that the brain was made up of individual nerve cells linked together by long extensions

Neuron Doctrine

the belief that brain funcitons are carried out through the synchronized activity of independent neurons

Neuron Doctrine Principles (6):

1) connectional specificity: the neuron is the anatomical unit: is an independent unit/individual cell

2)dynamic polarization: inferred that information entered at one point and exited at another; was a direction/flow of information in the cell

3) neuron is a developmental/embryological unit: during development, the axon grows out of the cell body; it was an evolving unit

4) neuron is a metabolic unit: came from studies in which different parts of neurons were cut and parts of the cell died and parts lived; the axon WILL NOT regenerate after damage

5) if you kill one cell another doesn�tnecessarily die
6) neuron is the basic informationprocessing unit; it�s possible for one neuron to do simple computing

neuron composed of:

1) soma-cell body2) axon-transmitting process3) dendrite-receiving process4) synapse-gap between neurons where transmission takes place

In vertebrates, neurons receive inputs from ________ and pass information down the ___ towards the _______________

dendritesaxonnerve terminals

Nissl stain

stains the rough ER revealing the distribution of cell bodies (somata)

HRP (horseradish peroxidase) filled neuron

a retrograde tracer; taken up by axons and transported back to the cell bodies; used to visualize where the input to a particular neural region originates

Glial cells

structural/metabolic support; myelination of axons; remove debris following injury or cell death; clean-up of extracellular ions and neurotransmitters; guide the migration of neurons during development; makes up selectively permeable blood brain barrier (form tight junctions with endothelial cells that line capillaries and venules)

electrical impulses carry signals ______ a neuron; chemical transmitters carry signals ______ neurons

within; between


modulate activity in large regions rather than strictly exciting/inhibiting specific postsynaptic neurons; originate from the cell bodies in the midbrain; ex: Dopamine (DA, created in the ventral tegmental area), norepinephrine (NE, created in the locus coeruleus), serotonin (5-HT)


synthesized in cell body OR synaptic terminals; released from synaptic vesicles by presynaptic neuron --- bind to receptors on postsynaptic neuron

examples of excitatory NT's

glutamate (Glu) and acetylcholine (Ach)

examples of inhibitory NT's

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine (Gly)


facilitates learning and memory; affected in Alzheimer�s Disease


enhances vigilance & preparation for action

Dopamine (DA)

facilitates movement, reinforces behaviors, helps keep information in short-term (working) memory; affected in Parkinson�s Disease (low levels) and schizophrenia (high levels)


inhibits some behaviors; lots of other effects; affected in Depression

central sulcus

boundary of motor and somatosensory cortices AS WELL AS the seperator between the frontal and parietal lobes

longitudinal fissure

seperates the left and right cerebral hemishperes; runs from rostral to caudal end of the forebrain

cerebral cortex

the brain's outer "bark" layer; the gray matter

sylvian (lateral) fissure

separates temporal lobe from parietal and frontal lobes insula is buried within it

limbic system

corpus callosum, cingulate gyrus, thalamus, olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus


a ridge/outside fold on the cerebral cortex; very top is called the conveitus

Line of Gennari

a band of myelinated axons projecting into layer 4B of the primary visual cortex from layer 4C?; it is visible to the naked eye, and is coterminous with area V1


not visible on the outside, the folds inside; the very bottom is called the fundus

Brodmann's Map


how cells differ between brain regions

whenever there�s a __________ difference in the brain, there�s almost always a __________ difference

structural; functional

aggregate field theory

the notion that the whole brain participated in a behavior; Flourens

electronic conduction

current that is passively conducted throughout the neuron


male the inside of the cell more positive and more likely to generate an action potential; called excitatory postsynaptic potentials


make the inside of the cell less positive and less likely to generate an action potential; called inhibitory postsynaptic potentials

decremental conduction

diminished amplitude of the current at more distant loci

gray matter

forms a continuous cortical sheathl contains cell bodies of neurons and glial cells

white matter

fatty myelin surrounding the axons


bundles of axons

corticocortical connections

neighboring and distant connections between two cortical regions

anterograde tracers

absorbed at the dendrites or s ome and then diffuse along the axons (ex: radioactively labeled amino acids)

central nervous system

brain and spinal cord

peripheral nervous system

eveything outside the CNS; delivers sensory information to the CNS and carries the motor commands of the CNS to the muscles


white matter tracts that cross from the left to the right side of the CNS


the portion of the cortex that contains 6 man cortical layers and has a high degree of specialization of neuronal organization; composed of areas such as primary sensory and motor cortex; most evolved type of cortex

association cortex

the portion of the neocortex that is neither sensory nor motor

basal ganglia

controls movement; collection of subcortical neuronal groups in the forebreain beneath the anterior portion of the lateral ventricles; 3 subdivisions are the globus pallidus, caudate and putamen


the caudate and putamen combined


thalamus and hypothalamus


consists of midbrain, pons and medulla