N302 Chapter 1


Theory


represents a theorists thoughtful examination of a phenomenon, defined as a concrete situation, event, circumstance, or condition of interest. . In nursing, it is a well-defined view of professional nursing


Florence Nightingale


wrote "notes on nursing", insisted in the importance of creating a supportive environment to faciliatate the healing process.


paradigm


a worldview with global concepts underlying the theories and methodology of a particular acientific discipline


What does nursing professional metaparadigm consist of?


person, environment, health, and nursing


person


defined as the recipent of nursing care :)*must be considered as a functional whole with unique biopsychosocial and spiritual dimensions. This term can be more than the individual client-- family community, etc.


environment


internal and external context of the client in the health care situation. The nurse should consider the cultural, developmental, physical, and psychosocial conditions that influence the client's perception, behaviors, growth, and development


health


derives from the word wholeWeil: "a dynamic and harmonious equilibrium of all elements an dforces making up and surrounding a human being"WHO: "a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities"


caring


the element that nurses most value about their practiceBasic characteristics are:a. giving of selfb. involved presencec. intuitive knowing and empathyd. supporting the patient's integritye. professional competence


What are the 4 patterns of knowing embeded in nursing practice?


empiticalpersonal aesthetic ethical


empirical ways of knowing


grounded in the science of nursing


what are personal ways of knowing?


treating clients as unique human beings because of the nurse's own peronal experience and awareness of his/her own humanness


Aesthetic ways of knowing


allow for creative applications in the relationship designed to connect with clients in a different and more meaningful way


Ethical ways of knowing


refers to the moral aspects of nursing. encompasses knowing what is right and wrong, attention to standards and codes in makign moral choices and taking responsibility for one's actions as well as demonstrating prodessional values in providing health care.


Evidence-based practice


"the conscientuous explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients" It is informed, collaborative, and patient-centered.


Dr. Hildegard Paplau


1st nurse theorist to describe the nurse-client relationship as the foundation of nursing. Theory of interpersonal relationsihpsSix nursing roles: stranger roleresource roleteaching rolecounseling rolesurrogate roleactive leadership


Peplau's orientation phase


sets the stage for the rest of the relationship. Offers a systematic means for gathering assessment data from the client


Peplau's working phase


1. identification component: focuses on mutual clarification of ideas and expectations, setting of goals, and treatment planning to achieve identified goals. 2. exploitation component: helps the client work toward treatment goals, resolve healthcare issues and learn new coping strategies


Peplau's termination (resolution) phase


nurse assists client to review progress towards goals, makes referrals, and brings closure to the therapeutic relationship


transferrence


Freud's idea in which the client projects irrationsl attitudes and feelings from the past into the present.


Countertransferrence


Frued's idea where it refers to unconscious attitudes or exaggerated feelings a nurse may develop toward a client. Negative or positive.


ego defense mechanism


Freud's ideaunconscious methods a person uses to protect the self from experiencing anxiety.


Carl Jung


his work helps nurses exxamine the complex dimensions of a person; these include gender roles, acceptance of each individual just as they are, and out universal heritage as human beings.


Harry Stack Sullivan


showed that people learn their humanness from significant others in their environment. Having a corrective interpersonal experience in adulthood with a helping professional can help individuals frin the self-security they missed in childhood.


I-thou relationship


developed by Martin Buberin this kind of relationship, each individual responds to the other as a unique person in a mutually respectful manner. Mutual discovery.


Carl Rogers


identified 3 helper characteristics essential to the development of client-centered relationship:unconditional positive regard, empathetic understanding, and genuineness.


Aaron Beck


Cognitive behavioral therapy modelapproach based on teh premise that a person's thoughts are significant determinants of feelings and actions.


Cognitive distortions


Beck's theory

These are automatic thoughts that appear spontaneously in response to a stressful situation; seem to be valid assessments; and cause a person to intrepret neutral situations in an exaggerated, personalized, negative way.


Erik Erikson


broadened Freud's model of psychosexual stages to include psychosocial development.


Maslow's hierarchy of needs:


from highest to lowest:Self-actualizationSelf-esteemLove and belongingSafety and SecurityPhysiological needs


What is self-actualization?


humanity at its best. self actualized individuals take important personal stands on issues, saying no when it is appropriate, and fully committing themselves to personal goals that enrich their sense of self and contribute to the lives of others.


Communication


intepersonal activity involving the transmission of messages from a source to a receiver for the purpose of influencing the receiver's behavior.


sender


source of initiator of the message


message


consists of a verbal or nonverbal expression of thoughts or feelings transmitted from the sender to the receiver.


receiver


the receipient of the message.


symmetrical role


relationships are equal


complementary role


one person holding a higher position than the other in the communication process. (usually the nurse in a nurse-patient relationship)


metcommunication


nonverbal message about how the receiver should interpret the message.


feedback


verbal or nonverbal response the receiver gives to teh sender abou thte message.


validation


special form of feedback that provides verbal and nonverbal confirmation that both participants have the same basic understanding of the message and the feedback.


Therapeutic communication


a purposeful form of communication used in the helping relationship.


Telehealth


"the use of telecommunications and information technology to provide access to health assessment, diagnosis, intervention, consultation, supervision, education and information across distance"