S1M2 Anatomy Joints Lower Limb 2


What is the name of the ankle joint? The ankle is what type of joint and articulates with what?


It is a hinge type of joint, which articulates with the tibia and fibula (creates a square socket)Called the Malleolar mortise


What are the 3 lateral ankle ligaments?


Anterior talofibularPosterior talofibularCalcaneofibular


Ankle sprains are caused by what?


Forceful inversion, affects the 3 lateral ankle ligaments


Medial ligaments of the ankle?


TibionavicularTibiocalcanealAnterior tibiotalarPosterior tibiotalar


Clinical: What is a "Potts fracture"?


A dislocation of the ankle caused by forcible eversion of the foot (THINK FORCEFUL EVERSION)

-avulsion of the medial malleolus-avulsion of the lateral malleolusOR-fracture of the fibula above the inferior syndesmosis-rupture of the anterior tibiofibular lig.


Dorsiflexion of the ankle is provided by what?


the anterior compartment muscules of your leg!!( Tibialis anterior, Extensor hallcius longus, extensor digitorum longus, fibularis tertius)


Plantarflexion of the ankle is provided by what?


the posterior compartment leg muscles (GASTROC, SOLEUS, FLEX DIG LONGUS, FLEX HALLUCIS LONGUS)


What runs behind the medial malleolus?


"Tom, Dick and Nervous Harry"Tibialis posteriorFlexor Digitorum LongusPosterior Tibial ArteryTibial NerveFlexor Hallucis Longus


Blood supply to your ankle?


Branches from Fibular and Ant/Post Tibial Arteries


Innervation of your ankle?


Tibial and Deep Fibular Nerves


What are the two arches of your foot?


Longutidinal Arch and Traverse Arch


What is the function of your arches?


to distribute weight over pedal platform, act as shock springboards! and adapt to changes in surface contour


Your arches of your foot are made of what?


Ligaments, Muscle Tendons, and Bones.


Longitudinal arch of your foot consists of what?


You have a medial and lateral longitudinal archA medial arch (higher, **more important!!!)-Medial arch consists of calcaneus, talus** (most impt in longitudinal arch) 3 cuneiforms, medial 3 metatarsals
Lateral arch (flatter)-consists of calcaneus, cuboid, lateral metatarsals (lateral 2 digits)


What is your traverse arch?


Consists of cuboid, cuneiforms, bases of metatarsalMaintained by passive and active factors


What are the passive factors of the arches of your foot?


Think SHAPE of BONES + LIGAMENTSShape of bonesPlantar aponeurosis Long plantar ligamentPlantar calcneocuboid ligamentPlantar calcaneonavicular ligament


What are the DYNAMIC factors of your arches of your foot?


THINK intrinsic MUSCLES of FOOT +TENDONS inserting into footIntrinsic muscles of the footTendons inserting onto foot: flexor hallucis longus & flexor digitorum longus (longitudinal arch)fibularis longus & tibialis posterior (Transverse Arch)


What the hell is Pes Planus?


= FLAT FEETNormal in youn children (under 3)Two Types: 1.)Flexible: lack of medial arch (more common)Medial arch bears more wt. flat arch. appears normal when not-weight bearing....so if you were sitting your arch looks normal2.) Rigid: Flat feet all the time, whether weight bearing or non-weight bearing)-Aquired, Talus can be displaced inferomedially---more prominent talus


Clinical: What is Clubfoot?


Congenital condition, bilateral 50% of the cases, more common in boysInvolves the Subtalar JointAnkle is plantarflexed, foot is inverted, forfoot is turned towards the midline (adducted)Painful to walkRx: surgical clipping of calcaneal tendon = tenotomy or rehab with casts or braces (mia hamm and troy aikman had this)