Ch 7 nutrition


What nutrient does the body need the most of each day


water


is water a macro or micronutrient


macro


Water Comprises ?% of total body weight


45-75 (average of 60%)


Fluid located outside the cells
1/3 of body water
Circulation (blood and lymph)
Fluid between cells or tissues(interstitial fluid)


Extracellular fluid


Fluid located within the cells
Remains fairly constant 2/3 of body water


Intracellular fluid


water is absorbed directly from the ? into the circulating blood


small intestine


water is produced during the ? of
macronutrients


catabolism


water is stored primarily in the ? spaces


extracellular


does a high salt meal lead to water retention?


yes


For every ounce of glycogen,
you store ? of water


3 ounces


Urine is water


95%


Feces is ? water


10%


Fluid input (3)



Beverages Foods Metabolism


Fluid output



Kidneys Skin Lungs Feces (GI tract)


Types of electrolytes most plentiful in the body



Sodium (Na+) Potassium (K+) Chloride (Cl-)


Bulimia can lead to an imbalance in?


electrolytes


What disperses electrolytes


Water


Electrolytes are compounds such as



Salts Acids bases


Electrolyte functions (3)



Facilitate chemical reactions Control osmotic pressure Maintain acid/base balance


Normal blood pH


7.35-7.45


If blood pH drops to 7.2 we have


acidosis


If blood pH drops to 7.0


death


What causes...
� decrease the body's ability to absorb
minerals and other nutrients
� decrease the energy production in cells
� decrease ability to repair damaged cells
� decrease ability to detoxify heavy metals
� make tumor cells thrive
� make more susceptible to fatigue and illness


An acidic balance


pH of saliva


6.35-6.85


The most indepsensable nutrient


water


If blood is too concentrated, how does the body compensate?


water is pulled from the salivary glandsHypothalmus sends signals to the pituitary to release a hormon for the kidneys to concerve water


Conditions that increase the need for water consumption


Alcohol consumption Cold weather Dietary fiber Diseases that disturb water balance (diabetes, kidney disease) Heated environments High altitude Hot weather, high humidityKetosis Medications (diuretics) Physical activity Increased protein, salt or sugar intakes Pregnancy and breast feeding Prolonged diarrhea, vomiting, fever Surgery, blood loss, burns Very young or old age


Average Daily Requirement of water



Sedentary women: 9 cups/day (2200 mL) Sedentary men: 12 cups/day (2900 mL) Infants and children: 1.5 mL/kcal


Dehyration types


AcuteMildchronicsevere


Occurs with intense exercise or severe vomiting and/or diarrhea


Acute dehyration


1% or greater loss of body weight through fluid loss


Mild dhyration


Depressed thirst recognition, long-term poor fluid consumption, excess use of diuretics


Chronic dehyration


� 10% loss of body water
� Serious health risk, especially in children, elderly, and the
medically compromised
� 20% loss of body water is fatal


Severe dehyration


Early signs of dehyration


Appetite loss, headache, fatigue, flushed skin, light-headedness, dry mouth and eyes, dark concentrated urine with strong odor


Advanced signs of dehyration


Numbness,muscle spasms, swallowing difficulty, vision difficulties, delirium


the condition characterized by
excessive fluid retention


Edema


Healthy human kidneys can remove ???per hour


1.5L (6 cups) of water


Water toximia/ hyperhyration can lead to


hyponatrimia


Recommendations
Ordinary exercise (walking)


� 8 oz (1 cup) before exercise � 4 more oz every 20 mins � 8 oz (1 cup) 30 mins after exercise


Pregnant women need
at least ? of extra
water per day
Breastfeeding mothers
need an additional ? of water per day


1 cup 3-4 cups


caffeine is a natural substance found in more than how many plants?


60


how much coffee can you have in a day?


3 cups...300mg


Alcohol is a major contributor to


elevated blood pressure cirrhosis of the liver fetal alcohol syndrome