Ch 7 nutrition

What nutrient does the body need the most of each day


is water a macro or micronutrient


Water Comprises ?% of total body weight

45-75 (average of 60%)

Fluid located outside the cells
1/3 of body water
Circulation (blood and lymph)
Fluid between cells or tissues(interstitial fluid)

Extracellular fluid

Fluid located within the cells
Remains fairly constant 2/3 of body water

Intracellular fluid

water is absorbed directly from the ? into the circulating blood

small intestine

water is produced during the ? of


water is stored primarily in the ? spaces


does a high salt meal lead to water retention?


For every ounce of glycogen,
you store ? of water

3 ounces

Urine is water


Feces is ? water


Fluid input (3)

Beverages Foods Metabolism

Fluid output

Kidneys Skin Lungs Feces (GI tract)

Types of electrolytes most plentiful in the body

Sodium (Na+) Potassium (K+) Chloride (Cl-)

Bulimia can lead to an imbalance in?


What disperses electrolytes


Electrolytes are compounds such as

Salts Acids bases

Electrolyte functions (3)

Facilitate chemical reactions Control osmotic pressure Maintain acid/base balance

Normal blood pH


If blood pH drops to 7.2 we have


If blood pH drops to 7.0


What causes...
� decrease the body's ability to absorb
minerals and other nutrients
� decrease the energy production in cells
� decrease ability to repair damaged cells
� decrease ability to detoxify heavy metals
� make tumor cells thrive
� make more susceptible to fatigue and illness

An acidic balance

pH of saliva


The most indepsensable nutrient


If blood is too concentrated, how does the body compensate?

water is pulled from the salivary glandsHypothalmus sends signals to the pituitary to release a hormon for the kidneys to concerve water

Conditions that increase the need for water consumption

Alcohol consumption Cold weather Dietary fiber Diseases that disturb water balance (diabetes, kidney disease) Heated environments High altitude Hot weather, high humidityKetosis Medications (diuretics) Physical activity Increased protein, salt or sugar intakes Pregnancy and breast feeding Prolonged diarrhea, vomiting, fever Surgery, blood loss, burns Very young or old age

Average Daily Requirement of water

Sedentary women: 9 cups/day (2200 mL) Sedentary men: 12 cups/day (2900 mL) Infants and children: 1.5 mL/kcal

Dehyration types


Occurs with intense exercise or severe vomiting and/or diarrhea

Acute dehyration

1% or greater loss of body weight through fluid loss

Mild dhyration

Depressed thirst recognition, long-term poor fluid consumption, excess use of diuretics

Chronic dehyration

� 10% loss of body water
� Serious health risk, especially in children, elderly, and the
medically compromised
� 20% loss of body water is fatal

Severe dehyration

Early signs of dehyration

Appetite loss, headache, fatigue, flushed skin, light-headedness, dry mouth and eyes, dark concentrated urine with strong odor

Advanced signs of dehyration

Numbness,muscle spasms, swallowing difficulty, vision difficulties, delirium

the condition characterized by
excessive fluid retention


Healthy human kidneys can remove ???per hour

1.5L (6 cups) of water

Water toximia/ hyperhyration can lead to


Ordinary exercise (walking)

� 8 oz (1 cup) before exercise � 4 more oz every 20 mins � 8 oz (1 cup) 30 mins after exercise

Pregnant women need
at least ? of extra
water per day
Breastfeeding mothers
need an additional ? of water per day

1 cup 3-4 cups

caffeine is a natural substance found in more than how many plants?


how much coffee can you have in a day?

3 cups...300mg

Alcohol is a major contributor to

elevated blood pressure cirrhosis of the liver fetal alcohol syndrome