S1M2


Example of a synovial Ball and Socket Joint in your lower limb?


Your hip


Example of a synovial Hinge Joint in your lower limb?


Ball and socket joint allows several axis of movementKnee and Ankle


Example of a synovial Plane Joint in your lower limb?


Plane joints permit gliding or sliding movementsExample is your Superior Tibiofibular Joint


What is unique about your hip joint?


It is the 2nd most moveable joint. It is a ball and socket joint.While standing the wt. of the upper body is transmitted through the hip bones to the heads and necks of the femurs.


What is the Ischiofemoral ligament?


One of three ligaments of the hip joint!


What is the iliofemoral and pubofemoral ligaments?


2 of the 3 ligaments of your hip (the other is the Ischiofemoral


What is the purpose of the Acetabular labrum?


It increases the depth of your acetabulum


What is the blood supply to your hip joint?


Lateral circumflex femoralMedial circumflex femoral arteryAcetabular branch-->the artery going to the head of the femur, in the ligament)Retinacular arteries (which are in the synovial folds !!! STARRED--know the retinacular arteries


What is Hilton's Law?


Basically says the nerves supply the muscules extending directly across and action at a given joint also innervate that joint (provide sensory innervation)


The Femoral Nerve provides sensory innervation where? (Think Hilton's Law)


The anterior aspect of the hip jointBecause femoral nerve innervates the Rectus Femoris and the Pectineus muscles, so it supplies sensory info over the hip joint


The Obturator Nerve provides sensory innervation where?


To the inferior aspect of the hip joint because it innervates Obturator Externus (hilton's law)


What provides sensory innervation over the posterior and superior aspect of the hip joint? (think hilton's law)


Posterior Aspect: Nerve to the Quadratus Femoris (motor innerv by quadratus femoris)Superior Aspect: Superior Gluteal Nerve (motor innerv of the abductors of the thigh like glut med and min)


Femoral neck fractures present how?


Generally occurs in women 60 years and olderShortened and laterally rotated limb (due to lateral rotators of the leg and the hamstrings, rectus femoris and adductors that shorten that pull superiorly)


Clinical: A femoral neck fracture can damage what?


Medial Circumflex femoral artery!


Clinical: Posterior dislocation of the hip joint occurs how? What does a patient typically present with?


Due to severe impact trama when the thigh is flexed, adducted and medially rotated. (sitting in a car)The joint capsule tears posteriorly and inferiorlyThe femoral head moves posterior to the acetabulum (fx to the acetabulum and labrum)Pt presents with shortening and medial rotation of the limb


Clinical: Posterior dislocation of the hip occurs in a severe impact trama (car accident) What could be damaged?


Fx of the acetabulumTear of the acetabulum labrum (gives the acetabulum depth)Injury to the SCIATIC NERVE! (paralysis of hamstrings, think all those muscles are innevated by Sciatic n. branches) Sensory deficit on the posterior lateral leg and foot as well


Anterior hip disslocations can occur also! How so?


When you are skiing and your tips of your skis get stuck in the snow! You can tear the acetabulum anterior instead of posteriorly!


What is the difference between a hip replacement and a hip resurfacing?


A total hip replacement is shown on the right, a resurfacing on the left hipA hip replacement is the standard for arthritis, has a limited shelf life (about 20 years), doesn't spare the bone when being inserted, and pts are typically older and aren't going to be running around (they will die before it needs replaced again)
A hip resurfacing is perfect for younger patients because it preserves the bone, and also the head of the femur is larger after a resurfacing which prevents subsequent disslocation. Eventually resurfacing results in a hip replacement.


What are the main movements of the knee?


Flexion and Extension!


What are the three articulations at the knee joint?


(2) femorotibial (one medial and one lateral)(1) femoropatellar
EASY!


What muscles stabilize the knee?


Quadraceps femoris (mostly) and vastus medialis/lateralis


What is the Q-ANGLE? What is normal?


Describes as the "quadriceps-pull" angleThe angle between the ASIS to the patella and from the midpoint of the tibia through the patellaNormal Q-angle centers the mid-knee under the head of the femur-->aids in wt. bearing


Clinical: An larger athan normal Q-angle is called what? It is caused by what?

Genu valgum ("knock-knee")- increase in Q angle: the lateral angle of the tibia is abnormally diagonalThe weight bearing line falls laterally placing excessive stress on the lateral knee.This can cause stress on the TCL (tibial collateral ligament)Lateral Articular Cartilage and Lateral miniscus affectedAbnormal femoropatellar joint due to excessive lateral pull


An decrease in the Q ANGLE of the knee is called what? TEST QUESTION!!!


Genu varum (bow leg) smaller q-angle: abnormal medial angle of tibia Weight bearing falls medially, placing excess stress on medial artic. cartilage, medial meniscus, the FCL


Dislocation of the patella normall occurs in which way?


LATERALLY- due to quadraceps femoris pullVastus medialis and the higher lateral lip of the femur helps to prevent this lateral dislocation


Clinical: What is Patellofemoral Syndrome?


Pain deep to the patella medial to the knee, especially after downhill running. Due to repetitive microtrauma due to abnormal alignment of the patella on the femur


Patellar knee injuries can be prevented how?


Strengthing of the Vastus Medialis


What are the 5 capsular (external) ligaments of the knee?


Fibular colateral ligament (FCL/LCL)--in picturePopliteusPatellar Ligaments--in pictureTibial colateral ligaments (TCL/MCL)


What are the extracapsular ligaments of your knee? (2)


The Oblique popliteal ligament (expansion of semimembranous, and it stengthens the posterior joint capsule)The Arcuate Popliteal ligament


Your ACL prevents what?


HYPEREXTENSION at the KNEE!(think of the gymnastics video)


Your PCL of your knee prevents what?


HYPERFLEXION at the Knee.


Clinical: ACL injuries show what sign?


If the ACL is injured, the tibia will slide anteriorly under a fixed femurA postive drawer sign (90 degree flexed)A positive Lachman's test+ result if there is more than a 5 mm movement


PCL injuries show what clinically?


Falling onto the tibial tuberosity with a flexed kneeShows a posterior drawer sign--> tibia slids posteriorly under a fixed femur
Always compare this with an unaffected limb!


What are the two Intra-articular ligaments of your knee?


The medial meniscus (Cshaped, less mobile, attached to TCL/MCL) and the lateral meniscus (smaller and circular, more mobile than medial meniscus)


What is the most common type of knee joint injuries?


Ligament sprains!


What is the "unhappy triad" of the knee? What is affected and what causes it?


Tear to the ACL, TCL (tibial collateral ligament) & medial meniscus Caused by a foot being fixed combined with a twisting motion


Clinical: what is Housemaids knee?


Prepatellar bursitis (inflammation of the SQ prepatellar ligament)Caused by repetative weight bearing on the patella (cleaning the floor)


Clinical: What is Clergyman's Knee


Infrapatella bursitis (inflammation of SQ infrapatellar bursa)Think of kneeling in the Catholic church, its inferior to the patella!!


What is the Suprapatellar bursa so important??


Because if there is a cut and bacteria gets into this bursa it can spread into the knee, it will eventually end up in the popliteal lymph nodes!


What are the two tibiofibular joints (joints between the tibia and fibula)? and what type of joints are they?


Superior Tibiofibular Joint (synovial, fibrous joint which allows slight movement) Where is it? between fibular head and lateral condyle. Innervated by Common fibular, Tibial nerves. Blood supply: inferior lateral genicular and anterior tibial recurrent artery

Inferior Tibiofibular: between interosseous membrane, very limited movement, innervated by deep fibular, tibial, and saphenous nerves. Blood supply from fibular and ant/post tibial arteries.THIS JT is SO IMPT for ankle JOINT STABILITY!!!! DON'T FORGET!