What is step one of mitochondrial electron transport?
The passage of electron from NADH through the electron transport chain to O2 to make water in the matrix which produces energy.
What is step two of mitochondrial electron transport?
The energy produced in step one is used to set up the proton gradient. Protons are moved out of the matrix to intermembrane space against their electro-chemical gradient
Where is electron transport happening in the mitochondria?
Within the inner membrane
What is step three of mitochondrial electron transport?
The energy from the proton gradient is used to make atp
What is proton motive force?
If proton concentration is higher one on side, they are going to want to move to the other side.
How can a proton get through an impermeable membrane? (step 3)
A proton channel that is linked up to an ATP synthase "to syntheize" - The proton runs through the synthase and makes ATP
Good ways to stop and kill the cell are?
1. Steal electrons to stop their flow by tapping in with artifical electron acceptors.
2. Permeabilize the membrane by adding a detergent and dissipating the proton gradient
3. You can inhibit electron transfer to O2. Removin the O2 or blocking it will leave it with nothing to pass it to, making it stop.
You have to have a proton gradient be more concentrated in the _______ as opposed to the _______ in the mitochondria to make ATP.
You have to have a gradient such that the ___ is lower outside the inner membrane than inner to make ATP.
How does Cynanide and CO work as mitochondrial posions?
They inhibit electron tansport to O2 ; leaving the process with no final electron acceptor. The electron transport backs up and stops, blocking step 3, which blocks step 2, and then you're dead.(Basically have no oxygen)
How does DNP (dinitrophenol) work as a mitochondrial posion?
Uncouples the energy of the electron transport from ATP sythesis so that the energy is lost as heat (non-shivering thermogenesis) which blocks step 2.
How do detergents work as a mitochondria posion?
Break down the proton gradient blocking step 2. (pokes holes in cell when mitochondra is surrounded by them)
Pyruvate Acid is
Glycoysis break down, smallest parts goes into the mitochondria
The products of glycolsis are converted to C2 compunds (_________ in the mitochondria. These go into the TCA cycle in the _______.
For the TCA cycle to "turn" you need to put ________ into it, and then it goes.
C2 acetyl CoA
The first part of electron transport w/ ATP sythesis is?
Glycolysis happens in the cytoplasmThe products of glycolysis are converted to C2 compunds (acetyl CoA) in the mitochondiraacetyl CoA goes into the TCA cycle in the matrix
The TCA cycle produces NADH and other things like CO2 in the ______.
The second part of electron transport w/ ATP sythesis is?
The TCA cysle produces NADH and other things like CO2 in the matrix.
Where does NADH donate electrons for membrane electron transport?
In the matrix to the electron transport carriers within the inner membrane
The third part of electron transport w/ ATP sythesis is?
NADH donates electrons for membrane electron transport from the matrix to the electron transport carriers in the inner membrane then back the the final O2 accpeptor which produces water.
NADH, O2 and water are in ______
Electrons goes in the _________ and back to oxygen.
The fourth part of electron transport w/ ATP sythesis is?
The energy of electron transport is used to set up the proton gradient across the inner membrane
The fifth part of electron transport w/ ATP sythesis is?
The energy from the proton gradient is used to make ATP by the ATP synthase
The ATP synthase has ___ parts.
What is the F0 part od the ATP synthase?
the proton channel in the membrane
What is the F1 part of the ATP synthase?
The enzyematic part that makes the ATP in the matrix (Adds a phosphate to ADP to make ATP)
Which is more acidic; Matrix or intermembrane space?
Intermembrane space (proton gradient is here) More protons = less pH = more acidic
Life at equilbirum can or cannot exist?
Protons are going ___ during electron transport
Protons are going ___ during ATP synthase
You _____ energy to pump protons out
You ____ energy when protons come in
The F1 complex makes the ____ but it Can't do it by itself.
ATP (needs energy from the F0 complex proton channel.)
Only _______ can get through the F0 Complex
The F1 Complex faces the _____
The F0 Complex in in the _____
The F1 and F0 Complexes must be physically ______ to work.
Cholorplast is a ______ organelle
What membrane is a double membrane?
The envelope membrane
Are the envelope membranes the photosynthetic mmbranes?
What are the thylakoid membranes?
The photosynthetic membranes inside the cholorplasts.
Inner membrane is to __________
_________ is to Chloroplasts
Light harvesting proteins are _______.
What do light harvesting proteins do?
Takes the energy of light and converts it into chemical energy
Light harvesting pigments, electron transport complexes and ATP are all on or in __________
The thylakoid membranes
The lumen in the cholorplasts is
The aqueous area inside the thylakoids
The stroma in the cholorplasts is
the aqueous area outside the thylakoids
Is there a TCA cycle in chloroplasts?
Do choloroplasts have their own DNA?
90% of cholorplats' proteins are ...
Made in the nucleus, encoded by the nuclues to give nuclear-encoded genes.
Thylakoid membranes are high in _____ and have no _______.
Thylakoid is the ______ end
business - important, we're concerned about it.
In the mitochondria F1 faces the ______
In the chloroplast CF1 faces the ______
In the mitochondria the high H+ concentration is __________
In the cholorplasts the high H+ concentration is __________
Outside of the inner membraneInside of the thylakoid membranes
Chloroplasts are like _________ mitochondria.
In both Mitochondira and Chloroplasts the H+ flux is coupled to .....
Protons flow from ____ pH to ____ pH
Low to High
F1 are always in a ___ pH
Protons flow from ____ Hydrogen ion Concetraions to ____ hydrogen ion concentrations.
In both mitochondria an chloroplasts ATP is made when H+ flow from the ___ pH side to the ___ pH side.
In choloroplasts water is oxidized to _____
In mitochondria Ozygen is reduced to ____
Chloroplast _____ energy
Requires (light energy)AND makes it (ATP production)
Mitochondria ______ energy
Chloroplasts makes _____ from CO2
Mitochondria makes _____ from sugars
Chloroplasts have a high H+ concentration _______
Inside the thylakoids
Mitochondria have a high h+ _______
outside the inner membrane
The cholorplasts' CF1 faces ___
The mitochondria's F1 faces ___
Are Chloropasts and mitochondria's atp synthase the same proteins? if not, what are they?
No they are not, they are different proteins, and they are enzymes that are just doing the same thing.
For chloroplasts to make ATP Protons flow ___.
For mitochondria to make ATP protons flow ___.
The overall scheme for photosynthesis is....
While in the presence of light, Carbon dioxide and water will react to produce carbohydrates and oxygen
Less plants = _____ atmospheric oxygen
CO2 is _______ to make carbohydrates
CO2 is reduced by _____ to make carbohydrates
reductive biosynthesis in the dark reactions.
If you put CO2, ATP and NADPH in the Dark reaction (Black box) it spits out....
Carbohydrates and Oxygen
Where do the ATP and NADH in the dark reactions come from?
The light reactions