Bio Exam 2 Set #1


What is step one of mitochondrial electron transport?


The passage of electron from NADH through the electron transport chain to O2 to make water in the matrix which produces energy.


What is step two of mitochondrial electron transport?


The energy produced in step one is used to set up the proton gradient. Protons are moved out of the matrix to intermembrane space against their electro-chemical gradient


Where is electron transport happening in the mitochondria?


Within the inner membrane


What is step three of mitochondrial electron transport?


The energy from the proton gradient is used to make atp


What is proton motive force?


If proton concentration is higher one on side, they are going to want to move to the other side.


How can a proton get through an impermeable membrane? (step 3)


A proton channel that is linked up to an ATP synthase "to syntheize" - The proton runs through the synthase and makes ATP


Good ways to stop and kill the cell are?


1. Steal electrons to stop their flow by tapping in with artifical electron acceptors.

2. Permeabilize the membrane by adding a detergent and dissipating the proton gradient

3. You can inhibit electron transfer to O2. Removin the O2 or blocking it will leave it with nothing to pass it to, making it stop.


You have to have a proton gradient be more concentrated in the _______ as opposed to the _______ in the mitochondria to make ATP.


Inermembrane spaceMatrix


You have to have a gradient such that the ___ is lower outside the inner membrane than inner to make ATP.


pH


How does Cynanide and CO work as mitochondrial posions?


They inhibit electron tansport to O2 ; leaving the process with no final electron acceptor. The electron transport backs up and stops, blocking step 3, which blocks step 2, and then you're dead.(Basically have no oxygen)


How does DNP (dinitrophenol) work as a mitochondrial posion?


Uncouples the energy of the electron transport from ATP sythesis so that the energy is lost as heat (non-shivering thermogenesis) which blocks step 2.


How do detergents work as a mitochondria posion?


Break down the proton gradient blocking step 2. (pokes holes in cell when mitochondra is surrounded by them)


Pyruvate Acid is


Glycoysis break down, smallest parts goes into the mitochondria


The products of glycolsis are converted to C2 compunds (_________ in the mitochondria. These go into the TCA cycle in the _______.


acetyl CoAmatrix


For the TCA cycle to "turn" you need to put ________ into it, and then it goes.


C2 acetyl CoA


The first part of electron transport w/ ATP sythesis is?


Glycolysis happens in the cytoplasmThe products of glycolysis are converted to C2 compunds (acetyl CoA) in the mitochondiraacetyl CoA goes into the TCA cycle in the matrix


The TCA cycle produces NADH and other things like CO2 in the ______.


matrix


The second part of electron transport w/ ATP sythesis is?


The TCA cysle produces NADH and other things like CO2 in the matrix.


Where does NADH donate electrons for membrane electron transport?


In the matrix to the electron transport carriers within the inner membrane


The third part of electron transport w/ ATP sythesis is?


NADH donates electrons for membrane electron transport from the matrix to the electron transport carriers in the inner membrane then back the the final O2 accpeptor which produces water.


NADH, O2 and water are in ______


The matrix.


Electrons goes in the _________ and back to oxygen.


Inner membrane.


The fourth part of electron transport w/ ATP sythesis is?


The energy of electron transport is used to set up the proton gradient across the inner membrane


The fifth part of electron transport w/ ATP sythesis is?


The energy from the proton gradient is used to make ATP by the ATP synthase


The ATP synthase has ___ parts.


2


What is the F0 part od the ATP synthase?


the proton channel in the membrane


What is the F1 part of the ATP synthase?


The enzyematic part that makes the ATP in the matrix (Adds a phosphate to ADP to make ATP)


Which is more acidic; Matrix or intermembrane space?


Intermembrane space (proton gradient is here) More protons = less pH = more acidic


Life at equilbirum can or cannot exist?


CANNOT


Protons are going ___ during electron transport


out


Protons are going ___ during ATP synthase


in


You _____ energy to pump protons out


Need


You ____ energy when protons come in


use


The F1 complex makes the ____ but it Can't do it by itself.


ATP (needs energy from the F0 complex proton channel.)


Only _______ can get through the F0 Complex


Protons


The F1 Complex faces the _____


Matrix


The F0 Complex in in the _____


intermembrane Space


The F1 and F0 Complexes must be physically ______ to work.


coupled


Cholorplast is a ______ organelle


plant


What membrane is a double membrane?


The envelope membrane


Are the envelope membranes the photosynthetic mmbranes?


no


What are the thylakoid membranes?


The photosynthetic membranes inside the cholorplasts.


Inner membrane is to __________
as
_________ is to Chloroplasts


Mitochondria

Thylakoid Membrane


Light harvesting proteins are _______.


Pigments


What do light harvesting proteins do?


Takes the energy of light and converts it into chemical energy


Light harvesting pigments, electron transport complexes and ATP are all on or in __________


The thylakoid membranes


The lumen in the cholorplasts is


The aqueous area inside the thylakoids


The stroma in the cholorplasts is


the aqueous area outside the thylakoids


Is there a TCA cycle in chloroplasts?


No.


Do choloroplasts have their own DNA?


Yes


90% of cholorplats' proteins are ...


Made in the nucleus, encoded by the nuclues to give nuclear-encoded genes.


Thylakoid membranes are high in _____ and have no _______.


protein

cholesterol


Thylakoid is the ______ end


business - important, we're concerned about it.


In the mitochondria F1 faces the ______
In the chloroplast CF1 faces the ______


matrixstroma


In the mitochondria the high H+ concentration is __________
In the cholorplasts the high H+ concentration is __________


Outside of the inner membraneInside of the thylakoid membranes


Chloroplasts are like _________ mitochondria.


"inside-out"


In both Mitochondira and Chloroplasts the H+ flux is coupled to .....


ATP synthesis


Protons flow from ____ pH to ____ pH


Low to High


F1 are always in a ___ pH


High


Protons flow from ____ Hydrogen ion Concetraions to ____ hydrogen ion concentrations.


High Low


In both mitochondria an chloroplasts ATP is made when H+ flow from the ___ pH side to the ___ pH side.


low high


In choloroplasts water is oxidized to _____


oxygen


In mitochondria Ozygen is reduced to ____


water


Chloroplast _____ energy


Requires (light energy)AND makes it (ATP production)


Mitochondria ______ energy


Makes


Chloroplasts makes _____ from CO2


sugars


Mitochondria makes _____ from sugars


CO2


Chloroplasts have a high H+ concentration _______


Inside the thylakoids


Mitochondria have a high h+ _______


outside the inner membrane


The cholorplasts' CF1 faces ___


Out


The mitochondria's F1 faces ___


in


Are Chloropasts and mitochondria's atp synthase the same proteins? if not, what are they?


No they are not, they are different proteins, and they are enzymes that are just doing the same thing.


For chloroplasts to make ATP Protons flow ___.


Out (efflux)


For mitochondria to make ATP protons flow ___.


In (influx)


The overall scheme for photosynthesis is....


While in the presence of light, Carbon dioxide and water will react to produce carbohydrates and oxygen


(CH2O)n


Carbohydrates


Less plants = _____ atmospheric oxygen


less


CO2 is _______ to make carbohydrates


reduced


CO2 is reduced by _____ to make carbohydrates


reductive biosynthesis in the dark reactions.


If you put CO2, ATP and NADPH in the Dark reaction (Black box) it spits out....


Carbohydrates and Oxygen


Where do the ATP and NADH in the dark reactions come from?


The light reactions