SQL operators


Specifies the columns to retrieve in the query.


SELECT clause


Specifies any conditions for the query


WHERE clause


Specifies that all simple conditions must be true for the compound condition to be true


AND operator


Specifies that the compound condition is true whenever any of the simple conditions is true.


OR operator


Reverses the truth or falsity of the orginal condition


NOT operator


Finds rows that do not contain a null value in the specified column


IS NOT NULL operator


Finds rows that contain a null value in the specified column


IS NULL operator


Calculates the average value in a numeric range


AVG function


Specifies a range of values in a condition


BETWEEN operator


Counts the number of rows in a table


COUNT function


Sorts the query results in descending order based on the column name


DESC operator


Indicates the table from which to reetrieve the specified columns


FROM clause


Groups rows based on the specified column


GROUB BY clause


Limits a condition to the groups that are included


HAVING clause


Uses the IN operator to find a value in a group of values specified in the condition


IN clause


Indicates a pattern of characters to find in a condition


LIKE operator


Calculates the maximum value in a numeric range


MAX function


Calculates the minimum value in a numberic range


MIN function


Lists the query results in the specified order based on the column name


ORDER BY clause


Totals the values in a numeric range


SUM function


How do you form a compound condition?


combine simple conditions and using the operators AND, OR, or NOT


How do you use a computed column in SQL? How do you name the computed column?


use arithmetic operators and write the computation in place of a column name. assign a name to the computation by following the computation with the word AS and then the desired name.


What wildcards are available in Oracle, and what do they represent?


In Oracle, the percent (%) wildcard represents any collection of characters. The underscore (_) wildcard represens any single character.


How do you sort data?


ORDER BY clause


How do you sort data in descending order?


follow the sort key with the DESC operator


How do you avoid including duplicate values in a query's results?


precede the column name with the DISTINCE operator


How do you group data in an SQL query?


GROUP BY


How do you find rows in which a particular column contains a null value?


IS NULL operator in the WHERE clause


what is it called when one query is inside another query?


subquery