A single large dose is given initially to bring levels to therapuetic window
Amount of drug that is self administered each time
minimum amount of time b/w each dose. Dose can not be administered unless this has expired.
A small amount is infused continuously to maintain a low level of analgesia.
Background infusion Rate
What are the primary meds used during PCA? (3)
Opioids- fentanyl, meperidine and morphine
combining nonopiods w/ opioids to decrease amount of opioids needed.
Name (3) nonopioids used in "opioid sparing"
Ketorolac - NSAID Ketamine- anesthetic agent droperidol- antipsychotic
why administer naloxone during PCA?
to block certain opioid side effects
Name (2) local anesthetics used in PCA.
Simplest and most common method of PCA administration
Patient contolled intravenous analgesia (PCIA)
Tip of catheter lies in epidural space.
Paitent controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA)
Newest variation of PCA that uses a small patch
Patient controlled transdermal analgesia (PCTA)
Self-administers med directly into a specific site and helpls to localize it.
Patient controlled regional anesthesia
List (4) side effects of PCA
sedation pruritis GI distress respiratory depression