Pharm 17- Pt. controlled analgesia

A single large dose is given initially to bring levels to therapuetic window

Loading dose

Amount of drug that is self administered each time

demand dose

minimum amount of time b/w each dose. Dose can not be administered unless this has expired.

Lockout interval

A small amount is infused continuously to maintain a low level of analgesia.

Background infusion Rate

What are the primary meds used during PCA? (3)

Opioids- fentanyl, meperidine and morphine

combining nonopiods w/ opioids to decrease amount of opioids needed.

opioid sparing

Name (3) nonopioids used in "opioid sparing"

Ketorolac - NSAID Ketamine- anesthetic agent droperidol- antipsychotic

why administer naloxone during PCA?

to block certain opioid side effects

Name (2) local anesthetics used in PCA.

Bupivacaine ropivacaine

Simplest and most common method of PCA administration

Patient contolled intravenous analgesia (PCIA)

Tip of catheter lies in epidural space.

Paitent controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA)

Newest variation of PCA that uses a small patch

Patient controlled transdermal analgesia (PCTA)

Self-administers med directly into a specific site and helpls to localize it.

Patient controlled regional anesthesia

List (4) side effects of PCA

sedation pruritis GI distress respiratory depression