Speech Midterm


meaning


heart of communicationthe significance we attach to phenomena such as words actions people objects and events


perception


active process of selection organizing and interpreting people objects events situations and activities


self-fulfilling prophecy


one acts in ways consistent to how one has learned to perceive oneself


constructivism


the theory that we organize and interpret experience by applying cognitive structures called schemata


prototype


knowledge structure that defines the best or most representative example of some category


personal constructs


mental yardsticks that allow us to position people and situations along bipolar dimensions of judement


stereotypes


predictive generalizations about people and situations


scripts


guides to action based on what we've experienced and observeda sequence of activities that defines what we and others expected to do in specific situations


inerpretation


subjective process of explaining perceptions to assign meaning to them


attributions


explanations of why things happen and why people act as they do


self-serving bias


can distort our perceptionsleads us to take excessive credit for what we do welland to abdicate responsibility for what we do poorly


culture


consists of beliefs values understandings practices and ways of interpreting experience that are shared by a number of people


standpoint theory


claims that a culture includes a number of social communities that have different degrees of social status and privilege


cognitive complexity


refers to the number of constructs used, how abstract they are, and how elaborately they interact to shape perceptions


person-centered perception


reflects cognitive complexity because it entails abstract thinking and broad ranges of schematathe ability to perceive another as a unique and distinct individual


empathy


ability to feel with another person-- to feel what he or she feels


schemata


cognitive structures we use to organize and interpret experiencesfour types of schemata are: prototypes, personal constructs, stereotypes and scripts


direct definition


communications that explicitly tells us who we are by labeling us and our behaviors


attachment styles


patterns of parenting that teaches us who we are and others are and how to relate to others


identity scripts


another way family members communicate who we are and should berules for how we are supposed to live and who we are supposed to be


fearful attachment style
dismissive attachment style


if the primary caregiver communicates in negative rejecting or abusive ways to the childa caregiver who is disinterested rejecting or abusive may lead to this


social comparission


involves comparing ourselves with others to form judgements of our own talents attractiveness abilities leadership skills and so forth


particular others


the viewpoints of specific people who are significant to us


reflected appraisal


we see ourselves in terms of the appraisals reflected in others eyes


perspective of the generalized other


the collection of rules roles and attitudes endorsed by the whole social community in which we live


self- sabotage


telling ourselves we are no good we'll never learn something there's no point in trying to change


uppers


people who communicate positively about us and who reflect positive appraisals of our self- worth


downers


people who communicate negatively about us and our self- worth


vultures


extreme downersthey not only communicate negative images of us but also attack our self concepts


ego boundaries


define where the self stops and rest of the world beginsthis is the beginnings of self concepts: the realization that one is separate entity


communication


the interchange of thoughts and ideas in order to obtain information


five levels of communication


1. intrapersonal 2. interpersonal3. small group 4. organizational5. mass media


intrapersonal communication


communication within the self


interpersonal


dyadic communication between 2 people


small group


three or more (most common)


organizational communication


(millersville) formal


mass media communication


technology, papers etc.


Filters of communication


culturegenderageethnicitysexual orientationeconomic backgroundreligioneducational background


how do we communicate?


all forms of communication start with an idea


Purpose of speaking


to entertainto informto persuade


mass media


electronic or mechanical channels of delivering one to many communications


social media


means of connecting and interacting actively


gatekeeper


person or group who decides which messages pass through the gates of media to reach consumers


Informative speech 5 main ideas


purposetopictimeresearch/resourcesaudience


thesis


foundation of a speech


3 types of audience analysis


demographic- age genderpsychologicalenvironmental- ethnicity cultural economic status


environmental analysis


ethnicitypsychological needs, safety, love,self- actualizationneed for independenceneed to changedominance


introduction


grab attention of the audiencegive thesis


ways to grab attention


humorstatistics questionsquotesexamplesformalnon verbalstartle/ shock


ethos establisment


"heres why you need to hear this"


conclusion


sum upending devices


organizational patterns of main points


chronologicalhistoricalspacialsequentialcause/effectproblem/solutiontopical or categorical


types of proof


factsstatisticstestimonyexamplesnarrativeself


types of speeches


manuscript- readingmemorizedimpromptuextemporaneous


presenting a speech what do you need?


appearanceposture movementgesturesfacial expressionseye contact


paralanguage


vocal variety


vocal variety, characterizations of our voice


pitchvolumeratequality or tone


3 p's


plan practicepresent