Speech Midterm


heart of communicationthe significance we attach to phenomena such as words actions people objects and events


active process of selection organizing and interpreting people objects events situations and activities

self-fulfilling prophecy

one acts in ways consistent to how one has learned to perceive oneself


the theory that we organize and interpret experience by applying cognitive structures called schemata


knowledge structure that defines the best or most representative example of some category

personal constructs

mental yardsticks that allow us to position people and situations along bipolar dimensions of judement


predictive generalizations about people and situations


guides to action based on what we've experienced and observeda sequence of activities that defines what we and others expected to do in specific situations


subjective process of explaining perceptions to assign meaning to them


explanations of why things happen and why people act as they do

self-serving bias

can distort our perceptionsleads us to take excessive credit for what we do welland to abdicate responsibility for what we do poorly


consists of beliefs values understandings practices and ways of interpreting experience that are shared by a number of people

standpoint theory

claims that a culture includes a number of social communities that have different degrees of social status and privilege

cognitive complexity

refers to the number of constructs used, how abstract they are, and how elaborately they interact to shape perceptions

person-centered perception

reflects cognitive complexity because it entails abstract thinking and broad ranges of schematathe ability to perceive another as a unique and distinct individual


ability to feel with another person-- to feel what he or she feels


cognitive structures we use to organize and interpret experiencesfour types of schemata are: prototypes, personal constructs, stereotypes and scripts

direct definition

communications that explicitly tells us who we are by labeling us and our behaviors

attachment styles

patterns of parenting that teaches us who we are and others are and how to relate to others

identity scripts

another way family members communicate who we are and should berules for how we are supposed to live and who we are supposed to be

fearful attachment style
dismissive attachment style

if the primary caregiver communicates in negative rejecting or abusive ways to the childa caregiver who is disinterested rejecting or abusive may lead to this

social comparission

involves comparing ourselves with others to form judgements of our own talents attractiveness abilities leadership skills and so forth

particular others

the viewpoints of specific people who are significant to us

reflected appraisal

we see ourselves in terms of the appraisals reflected in others eyes

perspective of the generalized other

the collection of rules roles and attitudes endorsed by the whole social community in which we live

self- sabotage

telling ourselves we are no good we'll never learn something there's no point in trying to change


people who communicate positively about us and who reflect positive appraisals of our self- worth


people who communicate negatively about us and our self- worth


extreme downersthey not only communicate negative images of us but also attack our self concepts

ego boundaries

define where the self stops and rest of the world beginsthis is the beginnings of self concepts: the realization that one is separate entity


the interchange of thoughts and ideas in order to obtain information

five levels of communication

1. intrapersonal 2. interpersonal3. small group 4. organizational5. mass media

intrapersonal communication

communication within the self


dyadic communication between 2 people

small group

three or more (most common)

organizational communication

(millersville) formal

mass media communication

technology, papers etc.

Filters of communication

culturegenderageethnicitysexual orientationeconomic backgroundreligioneducational background

how do we communicate?

all forms of communication start with an idea

Purpose of speaking

to entertainto informto persuade

mass media

electronic or mechanical channels of delivering one to many communications

social media

means of connecting and interacting actively


person or group who decides which messages pass through the gates of media to reach consumers

Informative speech 5 main ideas



foundation of a speech

3 types of audience analysis

demographic- age genderpsychologicalenvironmental- ethnicity cultural economic status

environmental analysis

ethnicitypsychological needs, safety, love,self- actualizationneed for independenceneed to changedominance


grab attention of the audiencegive thesis

ways to grab attention

humorstatistics questionsquotesexamplesformalnon verbalstartle/ shock

ethos establisment

"heres why you need to hear this"


sum upending devices

organizational patterns of main points

chronologicalhistoricalspacialsequentialcause/effectproblem/solutiontopical or categorical

types of proof


types of speeches

manuscript- readingmemorizedimpromptuextemporaneous

presenting a speech what do you need?

appearanceposture movementgesturesfacial expressionseye contact


vocal variety

vocal variety, characterizations of our voice

pitchvolumeratequality or tone

3 p's

plan practicepresent