Hist Arch Exam 2


San Pietro BasilicaVatican City / Rome1506-1656Bramante, Michelangelo, della Porta, Vignola, Maderna, Bernini
-Bronze baldacchino over St. Peter's tomb with columns from Constantine's basilica, which were from the Temple of Solomon: connection between the Holy Land and St. Peter's-Cathedra Petri: chair of St. Peter-Scala Regia: Regal stair; tapers in width from top to bottom-Piazza Obliqua: actually two semicircles and a square with a freestanding Tuscan colonnade-Piazza Retta: trapezoidal plaza; flanking colonnade gets shorter toward church to make the cathedral proper seem more vertical-Not facing East, as was tradition, but facing West-Axis lines up with the obelisk in the center of the plaza


Il GesuRome1568-75Vignola & della Porta
-Created for the Jesuits: missionaries and educators-Transverse barrel-vaulted chapels instead of aisles with columns flanking a longitudinal barrel vaulted nave-strong axial emphasis and three-dimensionality of elements on the west facade-Classical orders replace Florentine subdivisions on the facade-Interior was originally plain but now decorated from 17th century endeavor-Wall-pillar church-Other side of entrance, engaged columns support a triangular pediment, which is framed by a segmental pediment supported by flanking pilasters


San Carlo alle Quattro FontaneRome1638-67Borromini
-Built on one of the grand routes Sixtus had built for the city-Undulating oval in plan with a long axis leading to the main ltar-Curving side walls swell to form side chapels which evoke a stretched Greek-cross plan -Conceived from interlocking geometric figures-Reliance on geometry instead of Renaissance arithmetic-Pendentives above entablature reduce plan to an oval drum supporting an oval dome coffered with octagons, hexagons, and trinitarian crosses with an oval occulus in the cetner


San Ivo alla SapienzaRome1642-1660Borromini
-Lantern tower symbolic of the papal crown and a conch shell (corona papal)-Built under the patronage of Urban VIII, who was a member of the Barbarini family; used the shape of a flying bee in the floor plan to glorify the family symbol-Spatial fluidity later influenced modernism


San Andrea al QuirinaleRome1653-70Bernini
-Small oval plan -Entry between corinthian pilasters supporting a pediment-Convex curving portico supported by ionic columns-Volute-like buttresses support dome on exterior-Architecture as theatre-Scenographic facade


BELVEDEREVienna, AUSTRIA1714 - 1723HILDEBRANDT
-Palace for the Hapsburgs-Variation on Baroque themes of centralization and -extension without Cartesian geometry-Means "Rising landscape with a view"-Transformation of gardens to enclosed spaces: more independent, intimate, private-Fusion of Gothic membrane-like walls and Italian thick walls-Fairy tale


Chapel SmiriceBohemia (Czech Republic)1700-13Dientzenhofer
-Stands as a carved object instead of a built structure-Combines Guarini's ideas of spatial juxtaposition (San Lorenzo) with the Central European system of wall-pillars-Elongated octagon with internally convex sides, undulating surface as like an organism-First example of a reduced central church -Answer to desire synthesis of centralized and longitudinal space; introduction of wall-pillars


VierzehnheiligenStaffelstein1743-63Neumann
-Basilican ground plan transformed into circles and ovals-Oval overhead vaults-Shape of a Latin-cross -Infinite, luminous space with series of oval baldacchins-Spatial syncopation


Die WiesSteingaden1746-54Zimmerman

-"Wies" means "meadow"-Wanted to try and be embedded in the landscape-----Volume of church repeats the shape of the hills and appears a humanized and spiritualized natural element-Walls as a light membrane; freely-shaped windows-Rococo architecture: lighter colors


Church for Benedictine ConventNeresheim - Swabia1746-1790Neumann
-Large oval crossing supported by four paired columns-Oval transept arms (centered on long axis)-Nave - Two cross-axial ovals set tangent to each other-Width is narrowed toward the alter-Walls � double layered plane


ChateauVaux-le-Vicomte1657-61Le Vau, Le Brun, Le Norte
-Emphasis on more windows than wall-Main element: longitudinal axis forms the way through the gardens; infinite space-Chateau is a freestanding block with pavillions at each corner-An axial entrance across a moat to the terrance and through a triple-arched entrance leads into vestibule-Center oval salon opened up on all side-Black Gate


Chateau et JardinVersailles, France1626-1710Le Vau, Le Brun, Le Notre, J.H. Mansart
-Extension of an old hunting lodge on swampy land-1400 fountains (had to redirect river to supply water to 37000 acres of land)-Town and gardens arranged as if radiating from the palace-Hall of mirrors continuing idea of infinity found in gardens-Gold gate-Stairway to heaven


What is considered the starting event of the Baroque?


-The Counter Reformation: Martin Luther's nailing of the 95 Theses to the door of All Saint's Church in 1517


Council of Trent


-1545, aiming to spread the prestige of the church and bring members back


Characteristics of Baroque


Didactic, theatrical, dynamic, dramatic style Concave vs. convex Preference for axial and centralized spacesEllipses and ovals


Where was Baroque prevalent?


Italy, France, German states (Bavaria, Saxony, Franconia), Austria, Bohemia, Spain, England, and Russia Influence of the Jesuits in South America


Gesamtkunstwerk


"All encompassing culture" -Applied to the Baroque movement


Where were the terms Baroque, Style Classique, Late Baroque, and Rococo used?


-Baroque: Italy, Rome and Torino -Style Classique: France, particularly Paris and the surrounding vicinity -Late Baroque: Austria, particularly Salzburg and Vienna, Bavaria, Bohemia, Franconia, Switzerland -Rococo: France, Bavaria


Purpose of Baroque


-To symbolize the strict organization of the system and its persuasive power; appears as a synthesis of dynamism and sysstematization


Place Royale


-Urban space centered on and developed around a statue of the sovereign


Characteristics of the Baroque in Central Europe


-Italian influences meshed with craft-guild traditions -Support of the style from the church and royalty (wanted a progressive image), along with the people (deep religious beliefs) -Number symbolism, images of the saints as intercessors -Light and airy churches -Wandpfeiler (wall pillar, establish concept of centrality with longtitudal plans)


Characteristics of Baroque in France


-Wall seen as a membrane instead of a thick piece as in italy -Sense of verticality derived from Gothic -Based on the idea of extension similar to that occurring at an urban level -France--City--House -Interior organization became more differentiated and comfortable (commodite)-Villa (chateau)- City Palace (hotel)


Metaphysics


1) Decartes-discourse of method (1637)-world as geometric extensions-"mechanistic" -looks like cells
2) Leibniz-monanology-world as self-containing monads-"organic"-dots


2 Branches of Boroque


1)adhereing to classicism of high renaissance-Rome: bernini-France: where it was transmutated into Gallic made of severe Boroque (le vau, le notre, mansart-England-related to french gothic
2)combo of Bernini theatrical side and pure arch. expressionism-Rome: Borromini-Torino, Bavaria, Bohemia, Austria, (Guarini, Neumann, Von Erlach, Hildebrandt, Zimmermann)-Related to German Gothic