Bio Test 3


Kingdom Animal

General Characteristics


Multicalular heterotrophes

all can move under thier own power at some point in thier life cycleGametic Meiosis for Reproductin


Development post Fertilization


Zygote--->Morula--->blastula--blastopore-> Gastrula


Zygote


Single Cell


Morula


Solid ball


Blastula


Hollow Ball


Blastopore


Forms either the mouth or Anus. If the anus is first then you get a mouth, if the mouth is formed first then there is NO anus


Parazoans


Multicellular

No symmetry

no tissues or organs

Sponges only


Eumetazoans


Multicellularhave symmetrytissues and organs


During Early Development Eumetazoans have three tissue layers


EndodermMesodermEctoderm


Endoderm


INNERLAYER


Mesoderm


Middle layer


Ectoderm


Outer layer


4 basic body designs of Eumetazoans


1. Symmetry2. Body cavity3. Segmentation4. Developmental


1. symmetry


RadialBilateralCephalization


Radial


Body is designed around a central axis no head, front or back (Jellyfish)


Bilateral


Front, back, top, bottom

Head brain


Cephalization


This favors organs in the head region to first contact environment and the development of a brain that can react to the sensory input.Paired sensory organs - hearing vision smellProvide orientation in a 3-D world


2. Body Cavity- found in bilateral organisms


AdvantageBetter digestion- -differentiation of the system-room to hold foods so you can feed when it is safe and/or when food is abundant
Reproductionroom for large numbers of gametes (egg/sperm)Room to hold fertilized eggs until release during favorable conditions, better survival


Types of cavitys


AcoelomicPseudocoelomicCoelomicCoelome


Acoelomic


Incomplete gut - mouth but no anus


Pseudocoelomic


Complete gut - mouth and anus


Coelomic


Pseudocoelomic (gut) forms between the Mess and Endoderm


Coelome


Forms within the mesodermthis allows physical contact of all tissue layers resulting in more complex organ systems-digestion-circulation


Digestion


a complex, differentiated system with areas for storage, absorption, an elimination


Circulation


the first heart and circulatory systemA transport systemopen and closed


open circulation system


Blood does not return directly to heart


Closed circulation system


Blood does return directly to the heartmore efficent


3. Segmentation


All coelomic organisms except molluscs are segmented


Advantages of segmentation


a. Coordination of the segments allows efficent movement

b. redundancy of organs in each segment. if one is damaged the others can compensate

c. more complex nervous system to control a. and b.

d. Fusing of segments to form highly specialized structures for feeding, sensory, locomotion.


4. Developmental


Coelomic organisms only


Protosome


Blastopore forms the mouth firstduring development each cell does not have a full set of genetic instructionsif one is damaged the organism may not survive


Deuterosome


blastopore forms the anus first each cell has a full set of genetic instructionsif a cell is lost the others compensate


Phylum: PORIFERA


Spongesparazoansmost are marine organismssimple organisms that simply filter water nutrient from the waterhave intracellular digestion. each cell must absorb and digest its own nutrientno storage capacity for food


Phylum: CNIDARIA


Jellyfish, sea anemones and coralradial symmetryhave Gastro Vascular Cavity (GVC)have extracellular digestion - food is digested in the GVCAll Cnidarians have nematocysts


Gastro Vascular Cavity GVC


a simple sac with one opening can hold food or a large organism has a large storage capacity


Nematocysts


stinging cells that have a trigger that fires when touchedcan produce powerful toxinsallow feeding on and protection from advanced organisms like fish


Phylum: Platyhelminthes


Flatworms- Planarians, Flokes and Tapeworms

Bilateral SymmetryHead brain CephalizationExcretion - Flame cell (throughout Body)Acoelmic organisms- Incomplete gut mouth but no anusGVC- a complex structure spread throughout the body


Phylum: Nematode


Round worms-All are parasites-Bilateral-Pseudocoelomic - complete gut, mouth and anus-Intestine is a simple tube-Excretion Protonephridia-Pseudocoelomic cavity is full of fluid ( the fluid does help with some transport, the fluid filled cavity is the first hydrostatic skleton


Phylum: molluscs


Snails, slugs,clams, osyters,squid,octopi, cuttlefish and nautili

External: some have a shell , others don't, may or may not have a distinct headBilateralFood- specialized structure for feeding or locomotionMantle- forms a chamber that can expell water for feeding, elimination, of waste or jet propulsion
Internal:Coelomic- complex, differentiated digestive systemHeart - open and closed circulation excretion- nephridiaunsegmented


Class: Gastropod

Phylum: molluscs


Snails have a shell Slugs do notBoth have distinct head foot is for gliding locomotion open circulationmost are aquadic some are terestrial (the only ones in phylum)


Class: Bivalve
Phylum: Mollsucs


Clame, scallops, oysters, musselesno headall have two shells open circulationfoot is for diggingall are aquatic filter feeders


Class: cephalopods
Phylum: Mollsucs


Squid, octopi, cuttle fish and nautiliall have a well developed head with eyes and excellent vision Only the Natilus has a shellFoot forms the tentacles with suckers for prey captureMantle can compress to provide jet propulsionall have closed circulationhave an advanced nervous systemfast aggressive predatorsshow true intelligence with problem solving, memory and communication


Phylum: Annelids


Marine worms, Earth worms, leechesC oelomicBilateralexcretion- nephridiathses are the segmented worms1. coordination2. redundancy3. nervous control4. specialization


Phylum: Arthropod


Coelomicbilateralsegmented


Exoskeleton


Exterior shell-hard-protective-above all waterproofThis allowed them to be the first terrestrial animal


Jointed Appendages


Tremondus Mechinical advantagemakes them extremely strong and fast with very little weight


Chelicerate


DO NOT have antenne


Mandibulate


Have antenne


Internal Features - Arthropod


OPen circulationRespiration- trachea and SpiraclesExcretion - Malpighian tubes


Spiracles


Hole in exoskeleton


Types of arthropods


1. crusteacean2. Arachnid3. insects


Crusteacean


Crab, shrimp, lobster, crayfish, pill bugsMandibulates- they have two pair of AntennaeBody - cephalothroax, Abdomen 10 legs 5 pairs 1st pair often forms claws


Arachnid


Spiders, scorpiones, ticksChelicerates - no antennaebody cephalothorax, abdomen8 legs 4 pair


Insects


Mandibulates- one pair of antennaeBody-head-thorax-abdomen-6 legs or three pair-many have wings and can fly, the only arthropod that does-demonstrate many different mouth and leg adaptations
Some show social organization - Ants, Bees, Termites


Incomplete metamorphosis


The young and adult look the same except for size


Complete Metamorphosis


Complete change from young to adult

Caterpillar to butterfly

about 90% of insects do this


Phylum Echinoderms


Starfish, Sea unrchins, Sand dollars, Sea cucumbersFiirst to show deutersome developmentfirst to have an endoskeletonDevelopment-young bilateral-adult Radial no head no brain


Phylum: Chordata


Non-vertebrate chordate- no skullVertebrate chordate-skull


General characteristics of ALL chordates


1. notochord2. dorsal hollow nreve cord3. post anal tail


notocord


Long soild flexible rod that runs the length of the bodyprovides support and surface area for muscle attachmentthis provides efficent movement


Post anal tail


structure that extends beyond the anus, for balance and locomotion


General characterictics of vertebrate chordates


1. vertebral column of the vertebrae2. distinct head witha skull that surrounds and protects the brain.3. endoskeleton 4. more advanced organsystem- complex and producing regulatory hormones 5. neural crest


Vertebral column


Hollow felxible structure that srrounds and protects the nerve cord.Also provides support and gives muscle attachment


Endoskeleton


Internal framework for support, protection of organs and muscle attachment


Neural crest


Early developmentstructure found only in vertebrates


Neural crest gives rise to (4)


a. gill arch- this develops later into the first jawb. Sensory system become more sensetive (vision, hearing , touch, smell, sence gravity magnitism, and electromagnetic aurac. schwann cellsd. adrenal gland


Schwann cells


part of the nervous system. they greatly increase the speed of thesignal sent. allow fast responce


Adrenal gland


Produces adrenaline controls the stress responce

fight/flight increase in BP, Heart rate, and respiration


Fish - both cartilage and bony


Circulation single loop system gill ---> heart---> body---> abck to gill
Respiration counter current blood flows one way water in the opposite gives a maxium exchange of gas


Skeleton of cartlage


cartilage is tough, flexible and lightweight


Skeleton of bone


Bone is very strong cartilage and calcium ( tough, flexible and Hard)


Sharks and rays


Must constantly move to respireno swim bladder must swim or they will sink


Fish


Can remain stationary to respirehave a swim bladder to give neutral bouyancy they can float


Develop