chapter 6

Polymers are broken apart by ________, the addition of water.


A specific _______ catalyzes each cellular reaction.

enzyme (protein)

_________ have unique 3D shapes


As a result of its shape, the _____ has an active site where the ______ interacts with the _______�s substrate = specific substrate on which an _______ acts.


Enzymes each have an optimal ______ & ___


Many enzymes require non-protein helpers called _____________. Most vitamins are ________

cofactors (co-enzymes if organic)co-enzymes

An example of an substrate is


An example of an Enzyme is:


Substrate binds to enzyme with induced fit called:


In an example the bond connecting _______ & _________ becomes strained.


Substrate isconverted to Products (glucose & fructose) via _______


The human body uses energy from _________for all its activities.


________ ________ is the process that converts the chemical energy of food (sugars) to the chemical energy of ATP (adenosine triphosphate in animal cells, including human cells.

Cellular respiration

Cellular respiration occurs in three main stages:

1. Glycolysis2. Citric Acid Cycle3. Oxidative Phosphorylation

_______ begins respiration by breaking glucose, a 6-C molecule, into 2 molecules of pyruvate, a 3-C compound.


Glycolysis occurs in the ________


________ undergoes transformation: carboxyl group removed & Coenzyme A added to yield Acetyl CoA


The Citric Acid Cycle is also called:

Krebs Cycle

In what stage are electrons are shuttled through the electron transport chain to generate ATP

Oxidative phosphorylation

_______ _______:electrons are lost from one substance and added to another

Redox reactions:

Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the inner ________ _________

mitochondrial membrane

The CoA helps the 2-C acetyl group enter the ______ ______ _______ and then splits off.

citric acid cycle

The _______ ______ _______ breaks down the 2-C acetyl group; yields 1 ATP + electrons for oxidative phosphorylation (+ other products)

citric acid cycle

The citric acid cycle occurs in the ________


_______ _______ ______ is a series of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that relelase energy used to make AT

Electron transport chain

_________ _______ are electrons are lost from one substance and added to another

Redox reactions

Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the ________ ________ ________

inner mitochondrial membrane