chapter 6


Polymers are broken apart by ________, the addition of water.


hydrolysis


A specific _______ catalyzes each cellular reaction.


enzyme (protein)


_________ have unique 3D shapes


Enzymes


As a result of its shape, the _____ has an active site where the ______ interacts with the _______�s substrate = specific substrate on which an _______ acts.


enzyme


Enzymes each have an optimal ______ & ___


temperaturepH


Many enzymes require non-protein helpers called _____________. Most vitamins are ________


cofactors (co-enzymes if organic)co-enzymes


An example of an substrate is


sucrose


An example of an Enzyme is:


sucrase


Substrate binds to enzyme with induced fit called:


handshake


In an example the bond connecting _______ & _________ becomes strained.


glucosefructose


Substrate isconverted to Products (glucose & fructose) via _______


hydrolysis


The human body uses energy from _________for all its activities.


ATP


________ ________ is the process that converts the chemical energy of food (sugars) to the chemical energy of ATP (adenosine triphosphate in animal cells, including human cells.


Cellular respiration


Cellular respiration occurs in three main stages:


1. Glycolysis2. Citric Acid Cycle3. Oxidative Phosphorylation


_______ begins respiration by breaking glucose, a 6-C molecule, into 2 molecules of pyruvate, a 3-C compound.


Glycolysis


Glycolysis occurs in the ________


cytoplasm


________ undergoes transformation: carboxyl group removed & Coenzyme A added to yield Acetyl CoA


Pyruvate


The Citric Acid Cycle is also called:


Krebs Cycle


In what stage are electrons are shuttled through the electron transport chain to generate ATP


Oxidative phosphorylation


_______ _______:electrons are lost from one substance and added to another


Redox reactions:


Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the inner ________ _________


mitochondrial membrane


The CoA helps the 2-C acetyl group enter the ______ ______ _______ and then splits off.


citric acid cycle


The _______ ______ _______ breaks down the 2-C acetyl group; yields 1 ATP + electrons for oxidative phosphorylation (+ other products)


citric acid cycle


The citric acid cycle occurs in the ________


mitochondria


_______ _______ ______ is a series of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that relelase energy used to make AT


Electron transport chain


_________ _______ are electrons are lost from one substance and added to another


Redox reactions


Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the ________ ________ ________


inner mitochondrial membrane