BPS Chapter 12

the first part of a speech, in which the speaker establishes the speech purpose and its relevance to the audience, and previews the topic and the main points


the part of the speech in which the speaker develops the main points intended to fulfill the speech's purpose


the part of the speech in which the speaker reterates the spech theme, summarizes main points, and leaves the audience with something about which to think or act


statements that express the key ideas and major themes of a speech. Their function is to make claims in support of the thesis statement

Main Points

the statement of equivalent speech points in similar grammatical form and style

Parallel Form

information (examples, narratives, testimony and facts and statistics) that clarifies, elaborates, and verifies the speaker's assertions

Supporting Points

in an outline, the plotting of speech points to indicate their weight relative to one another; subordinate points are placed underneath and to the right of higher order points


an outline format in which main points are enumerated with roman numerals (I, II, III); supporting points with capital letters (A, B, C); third-level points with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3); and fourth-level points with lowercase letters (a, b, c)

Roman Numeral Outline

the logical placement of ideas (in an outline, essay, or speech) relative to their importance to one another. Ideas that are coordinate are given equal weight. An idea that is subordinate to another is given relatively less weight.

Coordination and Subordination

ideas that are given the same weight in an outline and are aligned with one another; thus Main Point II is coordinate with Main Point I

Coordinate Points

ideas that are given relatively less weight. In an outline, they are indicated by their indention below the more important points

Subordinate Points

words, phrases, or sentences that tie speech ideas together and enable a speaker to move smoothly from one point to the next


a signal to listeners, in the form of a declarative sentence, that the speaker is turning to another topic

Full-Sentence Transitions

conjunctions or phrases (such as "next," "in the first case," etc.) that indicate transitions between supporting points


a type of transition in which the speaker restates the point just covered and previews the point to be covered next

Restate-Forecast Form

a question that does not invite actual responses, but is used to make the audience or the listener think

Rhetorical Question

that tell the audience what to expect next


statement included in the introduction of a speech in which the speaker identifies the main speech points

Preview Statement

an extended transition that alerts audience members to ensuing speech content

Internal Preview

an extended transition that draws together important ideas before proceeding to another speech point

Internal Summary