154: HR: Exam 1


the process of acquiring, deploying, and retaining a workforce of sufficient quantity and quality to create positive impacts on the organization's effectiveness.

Implications of the definition of Staffing:

-Acquire, deploy, retain-Staffing as a process or system- Quantity and quality issues-organization effectiveness

9 Staffing Levels

1. Acquire or Develop Talent2. Hire Yourself or Outsource3. External or Internal Hiring4. Core or Flexible Workforce5. Hire or Retain6. National or Global7. Attract or Relocate8. Overstaff or Understaff9. Short or Long-Term Focus

Four Staffing Quality Level Decisions

1. Person/Job or Person/Organization Match2. Specific or general KSAOs3. Exceptional or acceptable workforce quality4. Active or passive diversity

Person/Job match

Job's requirements and rewards match with the Person's KSAOs and motivation.

HR Outcomes of a Person/Job Match and/or Person/Organization Match

-Attraction-Performance-Retention-Attendance-Satisfaction, etc

Person/Organization Match

The Organization's values, new job duties, ability of the person to perform multiple jobs, and long-term employment options matching with the Person's KSAOs and Motivation

5 Staffing System Components

1. Applicant (person)2. Organization (job)3. Recruitment (identification and attraction)4. Selection (assessment and evaluation)5. Employment (decision making and final match)

2 Components of Staffing Organizational Model

1. Organizational Strategy2. HR Strategy

The Organizational Strategy as a part of the Staffing Organizations Model's two components:

1. Mission and vision2. Goals and objectives

HR strategy involves

key decisions about size and type of workforce to be


HR strategy may flow from

organizational strategy

HR strategy may directly influence

formulation of organization strategy



Human capital

Their KSAOs and their motivation to do the job

Staffing quantity focuses on


Staffing quality focuses on

person/job and person/org match

Staffing strategy

requires making key decisions about acquisition, deployment, and retention of a company's workforce

The most prevalent form of employment relationship is

Employer-Employee Relationship

Employer-employee relationship involves

an agreement between employer and employee on terms and conditions of employment (employment contract)

Independent Contractors

are not considered employees, in a legal sense, of employer

temporary employees

do not have special legal stature

at-will employment

an employer can fire an employee, or the employee may leave the employer, at any time for any reason.

3 Reasons we need laws and regulations in HR

1. Balance of Power2. Protection of Employees3. Protection of Employers

What are the 5 sources of our laws?

1. Common Law2. Constitutional Law3. Statutory Law4. Executive Order5. Agencies

5 EEO/AA Laws

1. Civil Rights Act of 19642. Age Discrimination in Employment Act (1967)3. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (1990)4. Rehabilitation Act (1973)5. Executive Order 11246 (1965)

11 Issues outlined in the Civil Rights Act of 1964

1. unlawful employment practices2. establishment of disparate impact3. disparate treatment4. mixed motives5. bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ)6. Testing7. Test Score Adjustments8. Seniority and merit systems9. Employment Advertising10. Pregnancy11. Preferential treatment and quotas

5 Issues of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967

1. Prohibited age discrimination2. BFOQ3. Factors other than age4. Seniority Systems5. Employment advertising

6 Issues covered by the ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990)

1. Qualified individuals with disabilities2. they have to be able to do the essential job functions 3. Reasonable accommodation and undue hardship4. Selection of employees5. Medical exams for job applicants and employees6. Affirmative Action

Two issues covered by the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and Executive Order 11246 of 1965

1. Prohibited discrimination2. Affirmative Action

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination against

race, color, religion, national origin, and sex.

Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 prohibited discrimination against

those age 40 and over

ADA of 1990 prohibited discrimination against

a qualified individual with a disability

the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prohibits discrimination against

an individual with a handicap

Executive Order 11246 of 1965 prohibits discrimination against

race, color, religion, national origin, and sex

The enforcement agency behind the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, and the ADA of 1990 is

the EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission)

The enforcement agency behind the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and Executive Order 11246 of 1965 is

the DOL (Department of Labor) or the OFCCP (Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs)

disparate treatment involves

allegations of intentional discrimination where employer knowingly discriminated on a basis of specific characteristics

Evidence of disparate treatment

may be direct, consist of mixed motive, or may be inferred from situational factors

4 Situational Factors of Disparate treatment

1. Person belongs to a protected class2. Person applied for, and was qualified for, the job3. Person was rejected despite being qualified4. Position remained open and employer continued to seek applicants after rejecting the qualified person


When a charge is filed with the EEOC, there is an investigation to determine "reasonable cause," and if it is found, conciliation is pursued.

Conciliation involves

voluntary settlement process or preferred method of settlement


neutral, third part mediates dispute to obtain agreement to resolve dispute


a physiological disorder affecting one or more of a number of body systems or a mental or psychological disorder


Bona fide Occupational Qualification

Right to sue letter

issued to the complaining party by the EEOC when they decide not to pursue a claim

Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986)

prohibits employment of unauthorized aliens

5 Public sector staffing practices

1. Open announcement of all vacancies2. Large numbers of applicants 3. Legal mandate to test applicants only for job-related KSAOs4. Limits on discretion in final hiring process5. Right of applicants to appeal hiring decisions, testing process, or actual test content and method

4 Examples of External Influences on Staffing

1. Economic Conditions2. Labor Markets3. Technology4. Labor Unions

Economic conditions effect on Staffing

-economic expansion and contraction-job growth and job opportunities-internal labor market mobility-turnover rates

Labor markets effect on Staffing

-Labor demand: employment patterns, KSAOs sought-Labor supply: labor force, demographic trends, KSAOs available-Labor shortages and surpluses -Employment arrangements

Technology's effects on Staffing

-elimination or creation of jobs-changes in skill requirements

Labor Unions effect on Staffing

-Negotiations-Labor Contracts: staffing levels, staffing quality, internal movement-Grievance systems

6 Labor Union Contract Clauses that affect Staffing

1. Management Rights2. Jobs and job structure3. External Staffing4. Internal Staffing (job posting, lines of movement, seniority)5. Grievance procedure6. Guarantees against discrimination

4 Part Process of Human Resource Planning

1. Forecast labor requirements compare2. Forecast Labor availabilites3. Determine gaps4. Develop Action Plans

HR Initial 5 Decisions

1. Strategic Planning2. Planning time frame3. Job categories and levels4. Head count (current workforce)5. Roles and responsibilities

Two parts of the initial strategic planning decision

1. comprehensiveness2. linkages with larger organizational mission

The initial decision, job categories and levels asks the question:

What jobs will be covered by a plan?

2 types of techniques for Forecasting HR Requirements

1. Statistical2. Judgemental

"top-down" approach

Managers at the top of the company determine staffing requirements and communicate their decisions to lower level employees.

"bottom-up" approach

Lower level employees communicate their staffing requirements to top-level employees in order to determine the final staffing requirement.

Markov Analysis

provides a means of analysing the reliability and availability of systems whose components exhibit strong dependencies.

Limitations of Markov Analysis

Markov diagrams for large systems are generally exceedingly large and complicated and difficult to construct.

4 Advantages of internal staffing

1. Positive employee reactions to promotion from within2. Quick method to identify job applicants3. Less expensive4. Less time required to reach full productivity

4 Disadvantages of internal staffing

1. No new KSAOs into the organization2. May perpetuate current underrepresentation of minorities and women.3. Small labor market to recruit from4. Employees may require more training time

4 Advantages of External staffing

1. new KSAOs2. more minorities and women to draw from3. Large labor market to draw from4. less training time

4 Disadvantages of External staffing

1. Negative reaction by internal applicants2. Time consuming to identify applicants3. Expensive to search external labor market4. More time required to reach full productivity

options for dealing with employee shortages

Short term:-increase overtime or part time-temporary hires
Long term:-Hires-Retrain

options for dealing with employee surpluses

Short term:-freeze hires-reduce overtime or part-time
Long term:-Layoffs-Retirement incentives

What is the purpose of Affirmative Action Plans (AAPs)?

to remedy past discrimination

Job family

a grouping of jobs, usually according to function

Job category

a grouping of jobs according to generic job title or occupation


a grouping of positions that are similar in their tasks and task dimensions


a grouping of tasks/dimensions that constitute the total work assignment of a single employee

Task dimension

a grouping of similar types of tasks


a grouping of elements to form and identifiable work activity


the smallest unit into which work can be divided

job analysis

process of studying jobs to gather, analyze, synthesize, and report information about job requirements

What is a job requirements matrix?

A chart that identifies specific tasks, task dimensions and the importance (or % of time spent) on that task, as well as the KSAOs that are required for each task.

Job description

Includes:-Job family, job title, job summary-task statements and dimensions-importance indicators-Job context indicators-Date conducted

Job specifications

describes KSAOs

5 Methods of Collecting Job Requirements information

1. Prior Information2. Observation3. Interviews4. Task questionnaire5. Committee or task force

4 Sources to be used when collecting Job Requirements info

1. Job analyst2. Job incumbents3. Supervisors4. Subject matter experts

task statements

objectively written description of the behavior or work activities engaged in by employees in order to perform the job

task dimensions

involves grouping sets of task statements into dimensions, attaching a name to each dimension. (also referred to as "duties," or "responsibilities.")


an underlying characteristic of an individual that contributes to job or role performance and to organizational success

the "Great 8" Competencies

1. Leading2. Supporting3. Presenting4. Analyzing5. Creating6. Organizing7. Adapting8. Performing

Extrinsic rewards

-external to the job itself-designed and granted to employees by the org-pay, benefits, work schedule, advancement, job security

Intrinsic rewards

-intangibles-experienced by employees as an outgrowth of doing the job-variety in work duties, autonomy, feedback, coworker and supervisor relations

employee value proposition

the "package" or "bundle" of rewards provided to employees and to which employees respond by joining, performing, and remaining with the organization.

Legal issues regarding job analysis:

-you must do a job analysis and it must be for the job which the selection instrument is to be utilized-job analysis should be in writing-it should describe in detail the procedure used-job data should be collected from a variety of current sources by knowledgeable job analysts

Legal issues regarding Essential Job Functions

-fundamental job duties of the job of an individual with a disability-the reason the position exists is to perform the function-the incumbent is hired for their expertise or ability to perform that particular function