Immune System


Immune System


Functional system-only comes up when needed2 types


#1 of immune system Innate


Non-specific, reacts to anything 2 lines of defence


1st line of defence


Ex: skin barrier, mucus protection


2nd line of defence


Ex: blood, phragocytes, protiens


#2 Immune systme Addaptive


If all fails to work and protect body this line of defence worksAntibodies


Trachea


Cartilage ring like shape not complete mucsle area at top


Phagocytes


Name given to any cell that can do a functionFunction is to kill bugsFrom monocytes


Adhersion to phagocytes


Microbe clings to phagocyte and killed and removed from cell


Pseudopods


Capsule formed around microbe so it can be moved through cell and then removed


Lysosome in phragocyte


Kills and digests microbe Suicide packet of cell


Acid-hydrolase enzyme


Lysosome enzymes-kill microbe in phagocytes


Phagocytic vesicle


Vesicle that carries microbe through phagocyte with lysosome enzymes


Phagosome


The name of microbe once inside the cellLysosome enzyme attach and kill bug in phagosome


Opsonigation process


The coating of sugar on microbe so it can be attached by phagocyte


NKC-Natral Killer Cells


"Pitt Bulls" of immune systemDefence, Immune cellsSecrete perfornis-sphere like-kills bugs


Nervouse system defence cells


Microgillia-immune cell of brain


Liver immune cell


Kupffer cell-immune cell


Respitatory Burst


The taking in of air by cells to make O- free radicals that will kill bugs


Infection


Attach of microbes


Inflammation


Response given by body to attach of microbe Heat, pain, swelling, red


Phagotisis


The process of an invading microbe being killed and decarted


Inflammatory Chemicals


Ex: HistomineSends positive chemotaxiz signal out from site of inflammation


Positive Chemotaxis


Signal sent out by imflammatory chemicalsReinforces chemical movement to cite of infection


Neutrophils


Enter blood vessels from bone marrowCling to walls of blood vessels


Margination


Neutrophils cells walk along blood vessels so it wont be draged away by blood traveling in other direction


Diapedesis


Neutrophils walk along to infection cite with legs then travel up to cite to kill bugs


Virus


DNA and RNA-need host to live and divide


Virus entry


Only DNA, RNA enter cellUse up all the cells good to divide and live Travels cell to cell infecting each


Interferon Genes (Host cell) of virus entry


Makes interferon protiens, sends to next cell which will be made into anti-viral protiens which block virus from binding


Retroviral Drugs


Blocks RNA virus from becoming DNA very exspensive treatment (HIV)


Complement proteins


Groud of proteins-20 diff types Makes hole on invading bug and makes it stay open for ever-so enzyme & lysosomes can always enterComplex cascade


Addaptive-antibodies


when 1st and 2nd line fail we make antibodies


Antibodies


Anything that works agianst anything invadingAttatch to antingen at protein cite


Antigenic Determinants


Antibodies are made against theseShape depends on amino acid protein


Antigen


Invading protein, must match up at hapten for antibody to work


Hapten


Site where antigen and antibody attatch Only need a portion of antigenic determinants to make antibodies


Attenuated virus


A weakened virus, alive but weak


Dead virus


virus is dead cant live


Antibody Parts


Heavy chainLight chainAntigen-binding site


Antigen-binding site


Site where antigen (invader) binds to antibody at tip


B lymphocytes


Blood cell that makes antibodies Antigen binding to lymphocytes to kill antigenB lymphocytes are cloned


Plasama Cells


Makes antibodies that are put in blood and circulated constintly


Memory Cells


A copy of antibodies combination If antibody #'s get low it can copy and make more and more plasma cells so antibodies can be made


Vacines


Weakend or dead bug-gives cells time to recognize the virus so antibodies can be made befor illness


5 Types of antibodies


IgDIgMIgGIgAIgE


IgM


first antibody that is made in immune response


IgG


Most # of antibodies in blood from IgG


Immunity


Body respose or vaccine


Pyrogen


realeased by phagocytes responce (fever)


Naturally acquired immunity


Mounting resonse in body at all timesActive-infectionPassive-antibodies passed through mothers milk


Artificially acquired immunity


VaccineActive-vaccine dead or attenuatedPassive-isolated antibodies produced outside the body and given synthetically


First shot


Antibodies go down after awhile never hit zero


Booster shot


Stimulates memory cells to make more plasma cells that make antibodiesKeeps antibodies up for years


Toxins and Bug


Both have antibodies


Antigen Antibody complex


Both come together inactivation-everything stops antibody stops antigen


Neutralization of antigen


Blocks all sides of antigen makes it inactive


Agglutination of antigen


Alot of antibodies bind to antigen and pull it down and they clupm together inactive


Precipitation of antigen


Become particalized and are pulled down into tube become inactive and insoluble


Myesthenia graves


Your body makes antibodies agianst eseatolie receptors-decrease mucsle movement-in face


Transution reacation


Immune reacation to antigensGiven in transfusion


Anafolectic Shock


Increased immune reactionbody goes crazyAnafolatic shock


Atopy


When shock spreads to whole body


Autograph


Organ or tissue from your body to you(same)


Isopgraph


Twins-share stuff No transplant rejection(similar)


Allograph


No relationSame speciesExchange of organ and tissue


Xenograph


Not the same species Organ or tissue transplant Pig