Immune System

Immune System

Functional system-only comes up when needed2 types

#1 of immune system Innate

Non-specific, reacts to anything 2 lines of defence

1st line of defence

Ex: skin barrier, mucus protection

2nd line of defence

Ex: blood, phragocytes, protiens

#2 Immune systme Addaptive

If all fails to work and protect body this line of defence worksAntibodies


Cartilage ring like shape not complete mucsle area at top


Name given to any cell that can do a functionFunction is to kill bugsFrom monocytes

Adhersion to phagocytes

Microbe clings to phagocyte and killed and removed from cell


Capsule formed around microbe so it can be moved through cell and then removed

Lysosome in phragocyte

Kills and digests microbe Suicide packet of cell

Acid-hydrolase enzyme

Lysosome enzymes-kill microbe in phagocytes

Phagocytic vesicle

Vesicle that carries microbe through phagocyte with lysosome enzymes


The name of microbe once inside the cellLysosome enzyme attach and kill bug in phagosome

Opsonigation process

The coating of sugar on microbe so it can be attached by phagocyte

NKC-Natral Killer Cells

"Pitt Bulls" of immune systemDefence, Immune cellsSecrete perfornis-sphere like-kills bugs

Nervouse system defence cells

Microgillia-immune cell of brain

Liver immune cell

Kupffer cell-immune cell

Respitatory Burst

The taking in of air by cells to make O- free radicals that will kill bugs


Attach of microbes


Response given by body to attach of microbe Heat, pain, swelling, red


The process of an invading microbe being killed and decarted

Inflammatory Chemicals

Ex: HistomineSends positive chemotaxiz signal out from site of inflammation

Positive Chemotaxis

Signal sent out by imflammatory chemicalsReinforces chemical movement to cite of infection


Enter blood vessels from bone marrowCling to walls of blood vessels


Neutrophils cells walk along blood vessels so it wont be draged away by blood traveling in other direction


Neutrophils walk along to infection cite with legs then travel up to cite to kill bugs


DNA and RNA-need host to live and divide

Virus entry

Only DNA, RNA enter cellUse up all the cells good to divide and live Travels cell to cell infecting each

Interferon Genes (Host cell) of virus entry

Makes interferon protiens, sends to next cell which will be made into anti-viral protiens which block virus from binding

Retroviral Drugs

Blocks RNA virus from becoming DNA very exspensive treatment (HIV)

Complement proteins

Groud of proteins-20 diff types Makes hole on invading bug and makes it stay open for ever-so enzyme & lysosomes can always enterComplex cascade


when 1st and 2nd line fail we make antibodies


Anything that works agianst anything invadingAttatch to antingen at protein cite

Antigenic Determinants

Antibodies are made against theseShape depends on amino acid protein


Invading protein, must match up at hapten for antibody to work


Site where antigen and antibody attatch Only need a portion of antigenic determinants to make antibodies

Attenuated virus

A weakened virus, alive but weak

Dead virus

virus is dead cant live

Antibody Parts

Heavy chainLight chainAntigen-binding site

Antigen-binding site

Site where antigen (invader) binds to antibody at tip

B lymphocytes

Blood cell that makes antibodies Antigen binding to lymphocytes to kill antigenB lymphocytes are cloned

Plasama Cells

Makes antibodies that are put in blood and circulated constintly

Memory Cells

A copy of antibodies combination If antibody #'s get low it can copy and make more and more plasma cells so antibodies can be made


Weakend or dead bug-gives cells time to recognize the virus so antibodies can be made befor illness

5 Types of antibodies



first antibody that is made in immune response


Most # of antibodies in blood from IgG


Body respose or vaccine


realeased by phagocytes responce (fever)

Naturally acquired immunity

Mounting resonse in body at all timesActive-infectionPassive-antibodies passed through mothers milk

Artificially acquired immunity

VaccineActive-vaccine dead or attenuatedPassive-isolated antibodies produced outside the body and given synthetically

First shot

Antibodies go down after awhile never hit zero

Booster shot

Stimulates memory cells to make more plasma cells that make antibodiesKeeps antibodies up for years

Toxins and Bug

Both have antibodies

Antigen Antibody complex

Both come together inactivation-everything stops antibody stops antigen

Neutralization of antigen

Blocks all sides of antigen makes it inactive

Agglutination of antigen

Alot of antibodies bind to antigen and pull it down and they clupm together inactive

Precipitation of antigen

Become particalized and are pulled down into tube become inactive and insoluble

Myesthenia graves

Your body makes antibodies agianst eseatolie receptors-decrease mucsle movement-in face

Transution reacation

Immune reacation to antigensGiven in transfusion

Anafolectic Shock

Increased immune reactionbody goes crazyAnafolatic shock


When shock spreads to whole body


Organ or tissue from your body to you(same)


Twins-share stuff No transplant rejection(similar)


No relationSame speciesExchange of organ and tissue


Not the same species Organ or tissue transplant Pig