major structures of brain moving rostral to caudal

olfactory bulbcortexthalamus (dorsal)hypothalamus (ventral)tectum (dorsal)tegmentum (ventral)cerebellum (dorsal)pons (ventral)spinal cord

Decussation of Pyramids

crossover of projection fibers

right hemisphere control left side of body

Functions of the Hypothalamus

1. control of the autonomic nervous system2. control of emotional responses3. regulation of body temp4. regulation of hunger and thirst5. control of behavior6. regulation of sleep wake cycles7. control of endrocrine system8. formation of memory

Autonomic nervous system

Sympathetic- prepares body for arousal ex: increased breathing, increased heart rateaxons release norepinephrine-fight or flight
Parasympthetic- facilitates vegetative nonemergency responses by the body's organsex:inrease digestive activty, activities opposing the sympathetic nervous system-consists of cranial nerves and nerves from scral spinal cord-relaxation and rest


coined by Freud to describe the mechanism by which unresolved, unconscious conflict might be transformed into symbolic physical symptoms-body is playing out the dramas of the mind

levels of consciousness

conscious- current awarenesspreconcious- not aware of material but its retrievableunconscious- not aware of material and not retrievable

psychic determinism

nothing happens by chance or accidenteverything we do think say and feel is an expression of our mind

Defense Mechanisms

Sublimation: redirecting 'wrong' urges into socially acceptable actions.

Repression: pushing uncomfortable thoughts into the subconscious.

Denial: Blindness to uncomfortable facts; clinging to false beliefs to avoid fear/shame/arousal.

Displacement: redirecting emotions to a substitute target.

Intellectualization: taking an overly rationalistic viewpoint to deny/avoid emotions.

Projection: attributing one�s own unconscious uncomfortable feelings to others.

Rationalization: creating false but credible justifications to avoid guilt/shame.

Reaction Formation: overacting in the opposite way to an emotion in order to control it.

Regression: reverting to prior developmental states.

The 3 Harsh Taskmasters

the Id: the monster of rage, lust, hunger

the World: a dangerous place and a source of conflict

The superego: the demanding quest for perfection

Three interacting systems

determinants of mental health and psychopathology

-Ego identity (psychology)-group (social)- Organism (biology)


Psychological - Intrapsychic (mind): -components, development, and attributes of personality
Social- Relationships (interpersonal) - mother and father -siblings and extended family -peers -community -humanity

Epigenetic principle

There is a natural, predetermined order to development-personality growth follows a sequence of inner predetermined laws-each person develops through a sequence of interrelated stages that emerge in accordanec with this preset plan
each stage a person is confronted with a crisis that must be resolved

Psychosocial stages

1 Trust vs. Mistrust2. Autonomy vs. Shame3. Initiative vs. Guilt4. Industry vs. Inferiority5. Identity vs. Role confusion (diffusion)6. Intimacy vs. Isolation7. Generativity vs. Stagnation8. Integrity vs. Despair

Personality Disorder

-inflexible, maladaptive patterns of personality-often begins early in life-results in social, occupational problems or distress
Cluster A: paranoid, schizoid, schizotypalCluster B: antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissisticCluster C: avoidant, obsessive- compulsive, dependedImpulse Control Disorders

Causes of Antisocial PD

Genetics, birth trauma, sensation-seeking, family dynamics, modeling and media

Characteristics of the Unconscious

*the Primary Process

-illogical-wish fullfillment and drive satisfaction-no ethical system other than pleasure seeking- parameters like time don't exhist

Priniciples of Personality Theory

-fixation-regression-repetition/compulsion-earlier lesions are worse than later ones- ego defense mechanisms-for some nurture is more important than nature


a pleasure seeking energy

only sexual when it became genital at the conclusion of childhood