Personality


major structures of brain moving rostral to caudal


olfactory bulbcortexthalamus (dorsal)hypothalamus (ventral)tectum (dorsal)tegmentum (ventral)cerebellum (dorsal)pons (ventral)spinal cord


Decussation of Pyramids


crossover of projection fibers

right hemisphere control left side of body


Functions of the Hypothalamus


1. control of the autonomic nervous system2. control of emotional responses3. regulation of body temp4. regulation of hunger and thirst5. control of behavior6. regulation of sleep wake cycles7. control of endrocrine system8. formation of memory


Autonomic nervous system


Sympathetic- prepares body for arousal ex: increased breathing, increased heart rateaxons release norepinephrine-fight or flight
Parasympthetic- facilitates vegetative nonemergency responses by the body's organsex:inrease digestive activty, activities opposing the sympathetic nervous system-consists of cranial nerves and nerves from scral spinal cord-relaxation and rest


Conversion


coined by Freud to describe the mechanism by which unresolved, unconscious conflict might be transformed into symbolic physical symptoms-body is playing out the dramas of the mind


levels of consciousness


conscious- current awarenesspreconcious- not aware of material but its retrievableunconscious- not aware of material and not retrievable


psychic determinism


nothing happens by chance or accidenteverything we do think say and feel is an expression of our mind


Defense Mechanisms


Sublimation: redirecting 'wrong' urges into socially acceptable actions.

Repression: pushing uncomfortable thoughts into the subconscious.

Denial: Blindness to uncomfortable facts; clinging to false beliefs to avoid fear/shame/arousal.

Displacement: redirecting emotions to a substitute target.

Intellectualization: taking an overly rationalistic viewpoint to deny/avoid emotions.

Projection: attributing one�s own unconscious uncomfortable feelings to others.

Rationalization: creating false but credible justifications to avoid guilt/shame.

Reaction Formation: overacting in the opposite way to an emotion in order to control it.

Regression: reverting to prior developmental states.


The 3 Harsh Taskmasters


the Id: the monster of rage, lust, hunger

the World: a dangerous place and a source of conflict

The superego: the demanding quest for perfection


Three interacting systems


determinants of mental health and psychopathology

-Ego identity (psychology)-group (social)- Organism (biology)


Psychosoocial


Psychological - Intrapsychic (mind): -components, development, and attributes of personality
Social- Relationships (interpersonal) - mother and father -siblings and extended family -peers -community -humanity


Epigenetic principle


There is a natural, predetermined order to development-personality growth follows a sequence of inner predetermined laws-each person develops through a sequence of interrelated stages that emerge in accordanec with this preset plan
each stage a person is confronted with a crisis that must be resolved


Psychosocial stages


1 Trust vs. Mistrust2. Autonomy vs. Shame3. Initiative vs. Guilt4. Industry vs. Inferiority5. Identity vs. Role confusion (diffusion)6. Intimacy vs. Isolation7. Generativity vs. Stagnation8. Integrity vs. Despair


Personality Disorder


-inflexible, maladaptive patterns of personality-often begins early in life-results in social, occupational problems or distress
Cluster A: paranoid, schizoid, schizotypalCluster B: antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissisticCluster C: avoidant, obsessive- compulsive, dependedImpulse Control Disorders


Causes of Antisocial PD


Genetics, birth trauma, sensation-seeking, family dynamics, modeling and media


Characteristics of the Unconscious


*the Primary Process

-illogical-wish fullfillment and drive satisfaction-no ethical system other than pleasure seeking- parameters like time don't exhist


Priniciples of Personality Theory


-fixation-regression-repetition/compulsion-earlier lesions are worse than later ones- ego defense mechanisms-for some nurture is more important than nature


libido


a pleasure seeking energy

only sexual when it became genital at the conclusion of childhood