Psychopharm


Typical Antipsychotic Drugs


Chlorpromazine (thorazine)Haldol (Haloperidol)Stelazine (trifluoperazine)Prolixin (Fluphenazine)Mellaril (thioridazine)Navane (Thiothixene)


Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs


Clozaril (Clozapine)Risperdal (Risperidone)Zyprexa (Olanzapine)Seroquel (Quetiapine)


Potency


High potency antipsychotics are less sedating and have fewer initial side effects.

Therefore, these are tried first (e.g., Haldol, Prolixine, Navane) - Typical Antipsychotics


Side Effects of Lower Potency


Sedation, Antichlonergic effects (drying) , Orthostatic Hypotension and lowering of the seizure threshold


High Potency Side Effects


EPS. All typical or traditional antipsychotics can potentially cause TD


Anti-cholinergic Effects


Drying out or Holding In.S-E typically diminish but do not completely disappear within the first month of antipyschotic use


Orthostatic Hypotension


Dizziness and Lightheadedness on standing up


EPS (Extrapyramidal Symptom) 1
-Movement Related Symptoms


Some are treated through the use of Anticholinergic Agents (ACAs. e.g., Cogentin)


EPS 2


Dystonia: acute and painful muscle spasms of the neck, back, tongue, eyes or larynx-usually pass within 2 weeks
Parkinsonism: sxs persist throughout tx and afflict 12-45%.Treated by lowering dose, switan ching drugs, or using an ACA
Akathisia: common cause to stop taking meds.tx. can be helped by using propranolol (beta blocker), benzos or ACAcauses feelings of dysphoria as werr las jitters or fidgeting. -persist throughout


Neuro Malignant Syndrome


Lethal.Muscle rigidity, altered consciousness, autonomic instability and high fever.-requires emergency, stopping ALL neuroleptics, using IV and administering anti-fever meds


Tardive Dyskinesia (TD)


abnormal movements of the lips, tongue, etc.-arises after at least 6 mos of tx and typically plateaus after 3-6 years without worsening any further. -someitmes, sxs emerge after drugs has been terminated or dose is lowered.-TD is not believed to be progressive and may be reversible.


Lethal with Clozaril-sudden drop in white blood cells usually within hrs or 12 wks of initial administration and manifesting sore throat and fever


Agranulocytosis


Elavil (amitrytyline)Anafranil (clomipramine)Tofranil (imipramine)


Tricyclics (TCA)


Prozac (fluoxetine)Zoloft (sertraline)Paxil (paroxetine)


SSRI


MAOIs


Nardil (phenelzine)Parnate (tranylcpromine)


Depression with Sleep Problems


Desyrel (trazadone) or Sinequan (doxepin-TCA), both have hypnotic effects


Panic Disorder /Anti-Depressants


In addition to Xanax (alprzolam) and Klonopin (clonazepam), PD is treated with antidepressants including: Tofranil (imipramine-TCA) and Paxil (paroxetine) or Prozac (fluoxetine)-SSRI


OCD/Anti-Depressant


responds to TCA - Anafranil (clomipramine) and SSRI, Prozac (fluoxetine)


Chronic Pain Disorder


responds to TCA, Elavil (amitryptiline), Norpramin (desipramine) and Sinequan (doxepin)


Bulimia and Premature Ejaculation


TCAs and SSRIs


TCA-Side Effects


Can trigger manic episodes in bipolar patients. Cause more anticholinergic effects than do even the antipsychoticsSedationn, orthostatic hypotension, weight gain, nausea and sexual dysfunction


MAOI side effects


tyramine-induced hepertensive crisis, orthostatic hypotension, weight gain, edema, sexual dysfunction and insomnia.-strict dietary compliance


Anxiolytics


Xanax (alprazolam)Klonopin (clonazepam)Valium (diazepam)Ativan (lorazepam)


Anxiolytics


Anxiety Reduction


Sedative/hypnotics


Induce sedation and improve sleep


Stress Inoculation Training (SIT)


3 phase tx approach:1. education about stress2. teaching coping strategies using relaxation trng and role playing3. in-vivo stress inducing


Self-Instruction Therapy


combines modeling and graduated practice with elements of RET, to help patients that have problems with task completion.


Interpersonal Psychotherapy


Treatment of Depression


PTSD and Alcohol Dependence dx


Treat Alcohol Dependence first!

Cognitive Processing Therapy is effective for rape (PTSD)


Motivational Interviewing


for Substance Abuse and Substance Dependence Tx


Contingency Contracting


Disruptive Behavior Disorder (ADHD, ODD)


Panic Disorder Tx


CBT and Relaxation Training


Buspar (Buspirone)


Non-BZs anxiolytic. Does not cause sedation, cognitive impairment, or withdrawal. Low potential for abuse and dependence. -requires 2-4 wks to take in effects and cannot be taken "as needed". -effective for GAD


Beta blockers (Inderal-Propanolol)


For somatic manifestation of anxiety, especially for social and performance anxiety.


Rebound Insomnia


Discontinuing the use of BZ causes insomnia. BZs disrupt the normal sleep cycle and suppress REM sleep. REM rebound can cause vivid disturbing dreams.


Most addictive BZs are those


rapid onset (providing a buzz)short half-life (can cause mini-withdrawal)taking the drug as needed encourages dependency


Alcohol Withdrawal/BZ Withdrawal


Stage 1: tremors, sweating, agitation and increased autonomic reations.Stage 2: hallucinations and panicStage 3: single or multiple grand mal seizures


Anti-convulsants Meds


Tegretol (Carbamazepine)Neurontin (Gabapentin)Depakote (Divalproex)Depakene (Valproic Acid)


Anti-convulsants


Typically used when bipolar disorder does not respond to lithium or lithium is contraindicated. ORto treat impulse control d/oTegretol = more effective than lithium in cases of rapid cycling or dysphoric manic episodesTegretol = neurological chronic pain disorders


Stimulants


Increase the level and effect of Catecholamines!


Stimulant Meds


Dexedrine (dextroamphetamine)Ritalin (Methylphenidate)Cylert (Pemoline)Adderall (Amphetamine)


Stimulants/Disorders


ADHD, Tx resistant depression, Tx resistant obesity, narcolepsy and AIDS, cancer


Stimulants Side-Effects


Can cause dependence and drug abuseWithdrawal Sxs: increased appetite, weight gain, increased sleep, decreased energy, paranoid sxs.


Peripheral Nervous System


Somatic : controld motor movementAutonomic: involuntary Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic


Response Polarization


People in groupsto becomemore extreme in their views


Risky Shift


People in groups to make riskier decisions than they would if they were deciding alone


Grouphtink


Group members are seeking concurrenc,consensus and unaninmity. Involves suspending critical evaluative capacities in decision making.


Prozac (fluoxetine) SSRI


LEAST likely to affect concentration, attention and memory


Elavil (amitryptyline) TCA
Chlorpromazine(thorazine) antipsychotic


High levels of anticholinergic side effects: drymouth, blurry vision, confusion and decreased memory


Xanax(BZ)


Causes drowsiness, mild cognitive deficit and amnesia


Job Evaluation


Determines finanacial worth of a job to an organization


Job Analysis


Analyzes the tasks and operations performed on a job as well as the training and education needed for the job-Can devise and validate measures of job performance


Pre-encounter


prefers majority group


Encounter (dissonance)


Conflict between old self-deprecating attitudes and newly emerging appreciating attitudes


Aversive Counterconditioning


Focus is on weakening the CR


Schein Career Anchors


Self-concept as an anchor or stabilizing force determining what future occupational decisions will be made


Donald Super's Theory


Career Rainbow-developmental


Holland's Theory


Personality-Job Fit (RIASEC)


Rosenthal Effect


Experimenter Expectancy or self-fulfilling prophecy


Hawthorne Effect


Improve performance when they are being watched


Overjustification Hypothesis


If children who enjoy reading receive rewards for reading, their interest in reading will actually decrease.External rewards or incentives are offered for activities that had previously been intrinsically motivated, there is subsequently a decrease in interest in the rewarded activity


Equity Theory


Ratio of input and output


Gain-Loss


People we like most are those who initially don't like us and then change their perspective to come to like us.


Moderator


Strength of the relationship


Mediator Variable


Explains the relationship (why there's a relationship)


Sleep Wake Cycle (Brain Structure)


Hypothalamus in the Temporal Lobe


Immersion-Emersion


Strong identity with the minority group and rejection of the dominant culture (Racial Pride)


Solomon Four Groups


Controls for the effects of testing (Practice Test)Subjects are divided into 4 groups:1) pre-intervention-post2)pre-no intervention-post3) intervention-post4) post


Latin Square


Counterbalancing design and controls for carryover effects during repeated measure


Bipolar Disorder I


Has to have 1 or more MANIC or MIXED episode!


Job Enrichment


Increasing worker's responsibilitiesHigh in growth-needIncrease satisfaction and performance, as well as Decreased turnover and absenteeism


Selection Rate


# of openings: # of applicants


Incremental Validity


Optimized if base rate is .5 and selection ratio is .1If there is a large pool of applicants with relatively few openings.


Type I


Saying there's a difference when there isn't!False Positive


Increasing True Positive


Increases False Positive


McNaughton Rule


Insanity Defense


Self-Instructional Training


Repetition, Graded practice and cognitive restructuring


OCD gender
Prevalence of OCD in girls is much lower in boys


Equally common in males and females. But, males develop btwn 6-15 yrs and females develop btwn 20-29 yrs.


Protocol Analysis


Verbalizing your thought process as you perform the task


Crisis Intervention


Secondary prevention.Early identification and treatmentScreening


Primary prevention


immunization, condoms, safety air bagsPreventing problems from occurring.


Leadership in Organization


Greater satisfaction + Democratic leadersProductivity higher under Authoritarian and Democratic leaders than Laissez-faire


Gerstmann's Syndrome


Agraphia, Acalculia, Rt-lt disorientation and finger agnosiaDominant Parietal lobe


Kluver Bucy Syndrome


Placidity, apathy, hyperphagia and hypersexuality


Studies on the nature of teachers' interactions with students have shown that:


Gender of students NOT teacher, has an impact on the teacher's interactions with students.


Who exercises privilege?


CLIENT


Who asserts privilege?


the INTERN


Cattel-Horn-Carroll theory


3 strata model: g, broad cognitive abilities, narrow cognitive abilities.


WISC-IV


Four basic underlying factors to the construct of intelligence


NURTURIST view of language development


Children learn to speak through exposure to adult speech.


Primacy Effect


Impression FormationTendency for initial information to carry more weight than information received later.


Kochanska development of conscience


related to Parenting Style and Child's Temparement


Piaget's Moral Development


Related to Cognitive Development


Categories of Seizures


a. Partial (electrical abnormalities in a focal area of the brain)b. Generalized (electrical abnormalities throughout the brain)


Partial Seizures


a. Simple Partial: size of the affected area can be as small as a thumb or half of the body.-Pt remains conscious during the seizure and can later describe it in detail.b. Complex Partial: begin with a few minutes of disorientation then staggering, purposeless movements and aimless wandering.-Loss of consciousness


Prospective Memory


Remembering that one had planned to do something at a particular time.


Procedural Memory


Implicit or non-declarativeprocedures that are remembered automatically without conscious awareness (e.g., riding a bike)


Declarative Memory


ExplicitInvolves conscious recollection of information or experience


2 types of declarative memory


1. episodic : autobiographical events2 semantic: meaning of words and facts


Accommodations


Adjusting to reality demands by reorganizing, modifying and expanding cognitive structures.E.g., adding a 2nd floor


Assimilation


Taking in a new experience and incorporating it into existing cognitive structuree.g., putting books on shelf


HIPAA documentation


must be kept for 6 yrs. when it was created or when it was last in effect


Malnutrition during fetal period results in


decrease number of brain cells


After birth trauma


can result in reduced number of axonal or dendritic growth


Retroflection:


turn back onto the self what they would like do toothers. Can result in self-destructive behavior.


Deflection:


People distance themselves from their feelings throughdistraction, humor, generalization and asking questions rather thanmaking statements


Rogers


-people have inborn capacities for purposive,goal-directed behavioral-pathology are thought to be due to incongruence betweenthe self (true feelings) and experience (ability to be aware of thesefeelings and express them to others).
-empathy, warm and genuineness


Prototaxic


Birth to 7 mosSensory experiences


Parataxic


Temporal sequence is the only conception of causality. Transference is a parataxic distortion


Syntaxic


causal sensation, logical andanalytical thinking and ability to predict cause from knowledge oftheir effects


Gay Identity Model


SensitizationConfusionAssumption Commitment


Sensitization (Gay Model)


Pre-pubescent. Feels different from peers and ultimately internalizes a negative self-concept


Confusion (Gay model)


Around age 18. attempt to become heterosexual


Assumption (Gay Model)


Manage social stigma. increased contact with other gays and lesbians. Acknowledging homosexual identity while having negative attitudes


Commitment (Gay Model)


Integration of homosexual identity


Ritalin (side effects)


loss of appetite, insomnia, headaches, GI distress, sedation and dry mouth


Lithium (side effect)


Weight gain and tremors


Rater leniency


Use forced-choice format,. Rater selects adjectives from a pairs of equally desirable or undesirable choices


BARS


based on critical incidents (hypothetical situations)


Persuasion Model


1. Peripheral 2. Central


Peripheral (Persuasion)


Focus on aspects that are not central to the message, but rather are peripheral to it, such as the speaker's appearance, attractiveness, eloquence and expertise


Central (Persuasion)


Message elaboration. Person pays attention to the message and thinks deeply about the relevant information


Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Approach


1. Microsystem2. Mesosystem3. Exosystem4. Macrosystem5. Chronosystem


Arithmetic and Digit Span


Both load on the working memory-Affected by ACUTE hearing infection


Wernicke's Aphasia


Cannot COMPREHEND language, but speak fluentlyHas difficulty repeating verbal task


Broca's Aphasia


Difficulties in articulation, changes in prosody and some difficulties in comprehension


Conduction Aphasia


Connection between Broca's and Wernicke's is affected. Intact comprehension and fluency but cannot Repeat words.


Best predictor of adolescent alcohol use


Level of alcohol use by parents and peers


Retroactive Inhibition


when new info interferes with the recall of PREVIOUSLY learned info


Social facilitation occurs most frequently when the task is


SIMPLE, Familiar, Routine


Most powerful memory aid


Visual Imagery


Which arithmetic operation affect the mean


Addition and Subtraction


Which arithmetic operation affect the SD and the variance


Multiplication and Division


Sending bills to collection agency


ETHICAL as long as the patient is informed first. It is preferable, though not necessary, to inform the patient of your policy at the outset of therapy


Best tx for elderly patients with paranoia


Neuroleptics


Interval Sampling


When behavior has no beginning or end


Event Sampling


When a behavior occurs infrequently


BiPolar Disorder


Consistently linked to Genetic Factors.Stress has been linked to the onset of 1st and 2nd manic episodes.Has high rates co-morbid of substance abuse


Rehm's Self-Control model of depression


Integrate cognitive as well as behavioral models of depression. -result of negative self-evaluations, lack of self-reinforcement and high rates of self-punishment.


Classical Test Theory


views individual test score as sum of true score variability and error score variability (X=T+E)


Empirical Criterion Keying


MMPI. items are chosen based on their ability to discriminate group membership.


Ipsative Measure


only information on the tester, w/o info about how the individual compares to others


Item Response Theory


used to calculate to what extent a specific item on a test correlates with an underlying construct. -looks at subject's performance on a test item as representing the degree to which the subject has a latent trait


Beta blockers side effect


Less common: depression, anxiety and thought disturbance


PKU


caused by a genetic defect.-impairments in the metabolism of amino acids cause toxic chemicals to remain unmetabolized, resulting in severe mental retardation.


Long tem Potentiation (LTP)


Affect memory


False Alarm


False Positive


Miss


False Negative


Hit


True Positive


Correct Rejection


True Negative


Barnum Effect


People's tendency to agree that vague descriptions apply to them (e.g., newspaper horoscopes)


Avoidant Babies


Rarely cry when mother leaves and then ignore her upon return


Making test more difficult


Raises predictor cutoff# of FP and TP are decreased# of TN and # of FNs are increased


Covert Sensitization


Aversive conditioning conducted in imagination and is used exclusively for problematic behaviors like drinking or cigarette smoking


RET


form of CBT that is confrontive and focuses on irrational beliefs


Rogerian


point out incongruence between self and experience


Bowen


Evaluate the levels of differentiation in each family member


Selective Mutism


sign of fear and tx is guided imagerySSRIs are commonly prescribed


DNA and RNA have been associated with


Memory and genetics


Immediate memory


Sensory memory remains intact in amnesia


In pts with amnesia, which remains intact?


Immediate or Sensory Memory


Source Memory


Ability to remember the context in which material was learned


Imprinting


"critical period" appearance of a stimulus during a critical period that determines the nature of the stimulus in a stimulus-response pairing


Which research design is least likely threatened by history?


ABAB design


Sampling Error


applies to the standard error of the mean


James Marcia-Identity Model


Diffusion: ForeclosureMoratoriumAchievement


Diffusion (ID Model)


No crisis and No commitment


Foreclosure


Commitment but NO crisis


Moratorium


Crisis but NO commitment


Conformity is bet when


moderate group size (about 7) and unanimous members


Theme Interference Problems


Consultee-centered case consultation


Intervention that has the lowest recidivism of spousal abuse


Arrest and Imprisonment


An individual who is uncomfortable with his or her homosexual orientation


Sexual Disorder, NOS


Alternate approach to treating chronic pain


Hypnotherapy


Testimonials


May be used and solicited as LONG as they are not solicited from current patients or those vulnerable to undue influence.


AA adheres to


Disease Model of Addiction


Marlatt's Model of Addiction


Overlearned Habit.-Uses CBT for relapse prevention


Conducting an ABAB design, risk is


Failure of DV to return to baseline


Neo-Freudians emphasize in


Social Interaction


Substance most likely to cause hallucinations upon WITHDRAWAL


-Phenobarbital (barbiturates)-Alcohol, sedatives, hypnotics and anxiolytics


Opiod Withdrawal (Heroin)


Flu-like Symptoms


Amphetamines Withdrawal


Dysphoria, Fatigue, Unpleasant dreams, increased appetite and psychomotor agitation


A child with a reading disability


Will continue to have problems in adulthood.


Reliability Coefficient


How likely a person will maintain his or her position in the group if an equivalent test is given


Kohlberg's 3 Levels of Moral Development


1. Pre-conventional: Compliance with rules to avoid punishment and get rewards.a. Punishment-Obedience b. Instumental Hedonism


Kohlberg's 3 Levels of Moral Development


2. Conventional: Conforming to rules to get social approval. a. Good Boy/Good Girlb. Law and Order


Kohlberg's 3 Levels of Moral Development


3. Post-Conventionala. Morality of Contract, Rights and Lawsb. Morality of Conscience


Mediated Generalization


Stimulus Generalization


Which methods can help control HALO EFFECT?


1. Training the raters2. Forced response format in which the rater is forced to choose between 2 eaually desirable or undesirable attributes3. BARS: objective rating methods


Relative Methods


-does NOT help control halo effects-compares employees with one another.


Opiod Withdrawal (Heroin)


Flu like symptoms


Phenobarbital (Barbiturates) withdrawal causes


Hallucinations


Reliability Coefficient


Most people will maintain their relative ranking or position in the group on retesting.


Idiosyncracy Credits refer to


a group's tolerance of an individual's disregard for group norms. They can be earned by initially conforming to the group norms.


Classic Aging Profile


Maintenance or enhanced crystallized (e.g., vocabulary, information) intelligence with diminished fluid (e.g., digit symbol, picture arrangement) intelligence


Approach-Approach Conflict


person must choose between 2 desirable alternative and subsequent to choosing, slightly devalues the alternative not chosen.


Approach-Avoidance


Choices between something that is positive but has negative consequence. E.g., going to a party but gets grounded for going to the party


Chi-square CANNOT be run


When repeated observations are made


Prescribing the symptom


Strategic Family Therapy


Concern for Double Binds


Communications Family Therapy or MRI from Palo Alto


Serotonin and GABA


involved with mood disorders


GABA


associated with anxiety, epilepsy and schizophrenia


Idiographic


Used to describe single subject approaches


Nomothetic


Group Approach


Ipsative data


results from a foced -choice format. It can only describe relative strengths or interests within a subject and cannot be used for comparisons across subjects.


Power


Ability to correctly reject the null. If power is reduced, less likely to correctly reject the null.


Type II or Beta


incorrectly accepting the null hypothesis. Fails to reject an a false nullif a null hypothesis states a patient is healthy, and the patient is in fact sick, but the test fails to reject the hypothesis, falsely suggesting that the patient is healthy.Saying there isn't a difference when there is. False Negative


Type I or Alpha


Null hypothesis is falsely rejected.Saying there is a difference when there isn't. For example, if a null hypothesis states a patient is healthy, and the patient is indeed healthy, but the test rejects this hypothesis, falsely suggesting that the patient is sick.False Positive. Test says pt is sick, but really healthy


The fetish object is:


Conditioned Stimulus.Sexual excitement is the response


To distinguish between conditioned and unconditioned


Ask the question, Is the response universal? Does everybody has the same response?


HI LPC do best


in MODERATELY favorable situations


Low LPC do best


at the extremes (either highly favorable or unfavorable)


Standard Error of MEASUREMENT


-Average Amount of Error in calculating each subject's IQ score.


Standard Error of the ESTIMATE


-Average amount of error in Predicting each subject's high school GPA


Standard Error of the Mean


-Average amount of error in the GROUP's Mean in relation to POPULATION Mean


Standard Deviation


Average Amount of Spread in the group's IQ scores


Integrity vs. Despair (Late Adulthood)
Age 55 to death


Outcome = Wisdom


Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood)
Age: 35 to 55


Outcome: Capacity to care for others and to give to future generations


Intimacy vs Isolation (Early Adulthood)
Age 18-35


Outcome: Affiliation and Love


Identity vs Role Confusion
Age 12-18


Outcome: Devotion and Fidelity


Industry vs Inferiority
Age 6-12


Outcome: Competence


Initiative vs Guilt
Age 3-5


Outcome: Purpose


Autonomy vs Shame
Age 18 months - 3 years


Outcome: Self-control, courage and will


Trust vs Mistrust
Age 0-18 months


Outcome: Hope


Chronic Middle Ear Infection


Will have problems with verbal comprehension, including vocabulary, similarities and word reasoning


Acute Hearing Infection


Will have problems with working memory (i.e., digit span and arithmetic)


Sensitive Period


Certain things occur for development to proceed normally, if they don't occur, future events May Be Able to compensate


Critical Period


Certain things must occur for development to proceed. If they don't, person WILL NOT be able to compensate-Physical development has critical periods


Stroop Color Interference


Assess Frontal Lobe deficits


Huntington's Disease


Inherited disease marked by motor disturbances


When ethical guidelines conflict with the law...


psychologists make known his or her commitment to the Ethics Code and attempt to resolve the conflict responsibly.


9 year old is asked why one should not steal...


Because one can be punished for ste


9 year old is asked why one should not steal...


Because one can be punished for stealing!


Diagnosis of Dementia, Alzheimer's Type


made by neuropsychological testing and clinical history


Confabulation on the Rorschach


Cognitive impairment (e.g., MR) It's a claw, it's a lobster!


Freud / Erikson I


Latency / Industry vs. Inferiority (age 6 to 12)


Freud / Erikson II


Phallic / Initiative vs guilt (age 3-6)


Freud / Erikson III


Genital / Identity vs. Role confusion (age 12-18)


Alzheimer's neurotransmitter


Decreased Acetylcholine


Depression (neurotransmitter)


Norepinephrine and Serotonin


Less common S/E of beta blockers


Depression, anxiety and thought disturbances


Critics of Piaget


Piaget underestimated children's abilities at certain ages


Consultant working with employees in order to improve the implementation of a program


Consultee-Centered Administrative Consultation


How to develop a program for customer relations. Focus on the program itself


Program-Centered Administrative Consultation


Consultant works with the consultee on his or her difficulties with patients


Consultee-Centered Case Consultation


Focus on helping the consultee with a particular patient


Client-Centered Case Consultation


Structure responsible for sleep wake cycle


Hypothalamus, located in the temporal lobe


Common cause of MR


during embryonic stage of development


Attribution to depression, helplessnes and hopelessness


Internal, Stable and Global


Correlation of IQ scores among siblings


= .50


Rational-Economic Model (Classical decision theory)


Compiling all relevant information, investigating all possible solutions and choosing the very best one -rarely implemented because it is time consuming


Behavioral Decision Theory


Recognition of Real-life Limits, adopts a satisficing style, implements the first proposal that is adequate


Frame of Reference


used to improve the accuracy of performance ratings.


ANCOVA


extraneous variable is unanticipated. co-varying out an extraneous variable.


Extraneous variable


a variable that correclates with the outcome measure


Quality Assurance


focuses on availability, adequacy and appropriateness of services


Utilization Review


Necessity of procedures and cost


In psychoanalytic theory, mania masks


underlying depression


Eruption of id impulses into the ego


results in Anxiety and an attempt to bolstering defense mechanisms


Broca's area


located in the left frontal lobe, which controls the muscles that produce speech. -includes difficulties iwth speech production and fluency


Test-retest reliability would be the most appropriate type of reliability for


a test measuring an enduring trait


What type of evaluation if consultant is evaluating the program on an on-going basis as it is being implemented?


Formative Evaluation


What type of evaluation if consultant evaluate at the end of the program?


Summative Evaluation


What type of consultation if consultant focuses on helping a consultee on some genral clinical issues?


Consultee-centered CASE consultation


What type of consultation if consultant focuses on helping consultees overcome problems that limit programmatic change?


Consultee-centered ADMINISTRATIVE consultation


What risk factor results in reduced number of brain cells or neurons?


Fetal Malnutrition


What factor helps neuronal growth, develop more axons and dendrites and increases connections?


Brain development after birth in response to stimulation and experience


Information will be most likely transferred to long-term memory when it is


REHEARSED


What extends the capcaity of short-term memory?


Chunking


How long does HIPAA requires that all documentation be kept?


6 years.


Concurrent vs. Predictive Validity


Criterion-related validityConcurrent and Predictive difference is that in concurrent tests are taken at the same time.Predictive: test is taken and then a few months later correlation is checked with another measure


2 scales that do not correlate


Discriminant (Divergent) validityCorrect for attenuation of error


Canon-Bard Theory


Emotions and physiological experience are simultaneous


James-Lange


"we see a bear, then we run""you lose a fortune, you cry"-emotions is followed by an action


Schacter and Singer (2 factor theory of emotion)


People search for environmental cues to interpret their unexplained emotions


Exposing individuals to arguments against their views, then refuting (disproving) the argument


may serve to inoculate them against persuasive views


Expectancy


refers to the person's belief that effort will result in successful task performance (similar to self-efficacy)


Instrumentality


belief that success on the task will result in rewards


Valence


Value that the reward has for the person, or how desirable the reward is.


Equity Theory


input vs output compared to other employees


Interest Tests


good predictors of job choice but NOT job performance


Performance is a function of


opportunity (environmental varibales and organizational support), capacity/ability (individual attributes) and willingness/motivation (work effort)


Job context


lower level needs. dissatisfaction


Rational Economic Model of decision making


All facts and all possible alternative solutions be analyzed before choosing the optimal solution-oppostive to administrative approach-more complete knowledge base


Expert Power


supervisor's expertise because they the education and training


Conventional


Rule-regulated, orderly and unambiguous


Enterprising


like the opportunity to influence others and obtain power.Transformational Leaders


Positive feedback loop


deviation-amplifying loop


Negative feedback loop


deviation dampening. decreases the likelihood of changes and helps maintain the homeostatic state


Circular questioning


Milan model


Introjection


taking things as a whole-result is person is gullible and compliant


Projection


results in paranoia


Retroflection


results in self-desctructive behavior


Fundamental rule of psychoanalysis


Free Association


Escape Paradigm


Aversive stimulus cannot be avoided.Punishment is inevitable


Cronbach's alpha


highest when similar in content, but different in temperament.-reliability is highest when test items are homogenous and test takers are heterogeneous


Coefficient Alpha


KR-subtype of internal consistency. by taking the mean of all possible split halves


Random Selection


Increases external validity


Random assignment


increases internal validity


Assumption to both parametric and nonparametric statistics


Random Selection


Fundamental Attribution Error


tendency to overemphasize DISPOSITIONAL factors when making attirbutions about the behavior of other people


Self-serving Bias


You attribute your success to your OWN ability (internal factors) but you attribute your failure to the shortcomings of others (external factors)


Actor-observer Bias


You and another fail.-You attribute your failure to external or situational factors while you attribute the other person's failure to internal or dispositional factors


When a listener feels pressured,


Reactance happens.-resistance to persuasion increased


Social Facilitation


Coaction (presence of others working alongside an individual) and audience (presence of a passive observer).-enhances performance of simple, well-learned behaviors but impairing performance on complex, newly-learned behaviors


Group Tipping


Make each contribution public


In order to help a group resist persuasion,


Mild argument for the opposition and then refute those arguments


Low-context


Meaning is based on what is explicitly verbalized (actual words)


High-context


the situation or context and non-verbal cues significantly affect the meaning of what is communicated


Internal responsibility, External control


It's my fault and there's nothing I can do about it


Marginalization


occurs when there is both a loss of cultural id as well as little interest in the dominant culture


Assimilation (Berry's acculturation model)


When people don't maintain their cultural id and adopt the attitudes and views of the dominant culture


Separation


When people value their original culture and avoid itneractions with the dominant culture


Integration


When people both value their own cultures as well as seek interactions with the dominant culture


MMPI- K scale


Measures guardedness or defensiveness.Moderator variable, by adding points to the clinical scales


L scale


naive attempt to present favorably


F scale


attempts to fake bad, random responding, overall distresss and pathology, measures infrequently endorsed items.


VRIN and TRIN


response inconsistency


Halo Bias


EACH employee the same on all dimensions of job performance


Frame of Reference


decrease rater bias-ability of raters to assign accurate performance ratings


Critical Incident Technique


incidents are identified by the supervisor who observes an employee while s/he works


Most predictive of job performance across different jobs and job settings


From OCEAN personality type:-Conscientiousness


Best predictor of job performance


General mental ability tests(Cognitive)


What is useful when errors that occur during on-the-job training would be too costly?


Vestibule Training


According to Holland, the optimal situation is for the job environment to match the individual's,


Personality (RIASEC)


In Expectancy Theory, Instrumentality refers to:


the relationship between performance and outcome


Selection of a leadership style, according to Hersey and Blanchard's, should be based on:


Subordinate's Job Maturity


Job satisfaction has the strongest inverse correlation with


Turnover rate


A transformational leader is most liekely to use:


Framing--describing an organizations' goals and activities in ways that make them more meaningful to employees


Decision Tree


Vroom, Yetton and Jago


Social loafing occurs


when group is large and task is additive


IQ rate for identical twins reared together


.85


Learning CAN occur without reinforcement


Tolman


Biological sibling reared together


.45


Pro and Retro in memory interference


Refers to which material is being interfered withIf new material (pro) and old material (retro)


Biological parent/child reared together


.39


Cross-sequential design


Cross sectional + Longitudinal


Age related decline in IQ is most likely to be found in what design?


cross-sectional because it is susceptible to cohort (intergenerational) effects


According to Schaie, which IQ domain showed significan decline prior to age 60?


Perceptual Speed


Optimal item difficulty level for a T/F test


.75


D = 1.0 in item discrimination index


upper group answers correctly and none in the lower group


Slope (steepness) of the item response curve indicates the item's:


DISCRIMINABILITY


The steeper the slope


the greater the discrimination


What reliability statistic to use to estimate the effects of lengthening a test item


Spearman Brown


what statistic to use when test items are scored dichotomously (right or wrong)


KR-20


Test-retest reliability


Coefficient of stability


Mono-trait and heteromethod (same trait/ different method) coefficients are large,


Convergent Validity


Heterotrait-monomethod (different traits / same method) coefficients are small


Divergent / discriminant validity


Which defines the relationship between a predictor's relaibility coefficient and its criterion-related validity coefficient?


validity coefficient cannot exceed the square root of its reliability coefficient.


Percentile ranks and standard scores share in common


Both reference an examinee's score to those achieved by examinees in the standardization sample


Scores on extraneous variable


correlated with scores on the DV


Clusters (groups) of subjects rather than individual subjects are


selected from the population


Cluster sampling involves


randomly selecting pre-existing groups of individual from the population


Vicarious Liability


Supervisors and employers may be legally responsible for the actions of their supervisees and employees.


Protects a client's confidentiality in the context of legal proceedings


Privilege


When consulting with colleagues, psychologists do not disclose confidential information that reasonably could lead to the id of client with whom they have a confidential information


unless they have obtained prior consent of the person


It is not necessary,


to get client's permission when his/her identity will not be revealed


Career Anchor


self-conceptmotivation of priorities that define how people see themselves and hteir work.


Cathecolamines


Norepinephrine and Dopamine


Heteronomous Morality


Preschool children who believe thatrules are absolute and unchangeable


Consequences of an act. Good behavior is rewarded and bad beahvior is punished


Preconventional


Desire to maintain existing social laws, rules and norms


Conventional


self-chosen priinciples


Post conventional


Refers to disorders of a functional system. It is typically used for problems in movement such as incoordination, often accompanied by slurred speech.


Ataxia


Inability or deficit in using or understanding language.


Aphasia


Crystallized


Dependent on learning and education


Negative attitudes based on sexual orientation,


Sexual prejudice


refers to heterosexuals' dread of being in close quarters with homosexuals and homosexuals' self-loathing.


Homophobia


parents have the right not only to inspect and review their children's school records but also to challenge the contents of records.


Buckley Ammendment


It indicates the proportion of variability shared by the two variables, or the proportion of variability in one variable that can be accounted for by variability in the other.


Coefficient of determination


Stimulate divergent thinking


Brainstorming


Howard's phase model


RemoralizationRemediationRehabilitation


In depressed pts, one draws a specific conclusion without supporting evidence, or even in the face of contradictory evidence.


Arbitrary inference


Client therapy matching predicts


treatment length


changing or adapting to the environment by altering one�s own behaviors or responses


Autoplastic


perspective involves focusing on extrinsic distinctions that have meaning for the observer of the culture or society


Etic


perspective involves focusing on the intrinsic distinctions that are meaningful to members of a particular culture or society.


Emic


refers to changing or adapting to the environment by effecting changes in the environment.


Alloplastic


Self-esteem is enhanced by believing one�s own group (the
ingroup) is attractive and belittling the members of the other groups (the outgroups)


Social identity


when clear internal cues are absent, individuals infer feelings and beliefs by observed behavior or external cues


self-perception theory


individuals need and seek confirmation of their self-concept, whether the confirmation is positive or negative


self-verification


Anterograde amnesia and proactive inhibition


both problems remembering after the trauma


retroactive interference vs. retrograde amnesia


problems with remembering before the trauma


associated features of Somatoform D/o


anxiety and depression


Tiedeman and O'Hara based their career development model on


ego identity model


natural and similarities in grammar are present in many different languages is associated with


Nativist theory


Larry P vs. Riles case


-use of standardized intelligence tests for assessing children for placement in special classes for the mentally retarded.-banned the use of IQ tests in the placement of minority children in special education classes.


Point-biserial correlation


one dichotomous variable and one continuous


Vygotsky


social constructivism. social and cultural factors. influenced reciprocal teaching


Piaget


cognitive constructivism


Of the big 5 personality, which is the strongest predictor of job satisfaction


Neuroticism. low neuroticism and high extraversion


Of the big 5 personality, which is the strongest predictor of job performance


Conscientiousness


Most affected factor in WAIS-III among TBI patients


Processing Speed


Contemplation stage


aware of the problem and thinking of change


inability to recognize familiar objects by sight


visual agnosia


standard error of estimate


how well the equation fits the data. how far we can expect to make predictions


According to Beck's cognitive-behavioral model, automatic thoughts are


interpretations of a situation that determine one's behavioral and emotional responses


hyperthermia, altered consciousness, tachycardia, muscle rigidity, and autonomic dysfunction


symptoms of NMS from antipsychotic


In Dissociative Amnesia,


memory loss is usually for information acquired after the emotional trauma that brings on the symptoms


Tendency of individuals who start off with similar views to end up with a more extreme position after group discussion


Group polarization


Absence (petit mal) seizures are located in the


Thalamus


Partial seizures are located in the


temporal lobe


Damage to the prefrontal cortex affects


memory and attention


Employee has low ability but high willingness


Leadership style = selling


High ability but low willingness employee


Participatory style


High in task and accepting responsibility


Delegating


Low in accepting responsibility and ability to do the task


Telling


Potential negative side effects of SSRI


Worsen sleep and anxiety symptoms


Biographical information form


predicts job turnover


Selye's GAS


Alarm: after a person becomes aware of the stressful situationResistance: summon their resources and meet the challengeExhaustion: after trauma is over


Highest rate of suicide occurs among


Divorced parents


Views patient's symptoms as pathological (brief therapy or crisis intervention)


Brief Therapy


Betablockers effect on the receptor site


antagonist.blocking access to the neurotransmitter site


Pooled variance


Population variances are equal


When there is a brief delay, recall is best for words


in the beginning of the list


Beta or Type II error


retaining a false null. failing to detect a true effect


Low heterotrait and low heteromethod


High in divergent validity


Flextime


associated with productivity, satisfaction, absenteeism


Compressed workweek


Less impact on absenteeism


Violence against lesbians and gays


Heterosexism


NV measure of intelligence for deaf people


Hiskey and Nebraska


Leading cause of death in the US across all age groups


Heart disease followed with cancer


According to Piaget, cognitive adaptation to the work environment is achieved through


accommodation and assimilation


Hallucinations after continued use


flashbacks


Recurrence of hallucinations long after intoxication is the result of


Mescaline


Children with ADHD are most likely to score lowest on the WISC-III


Digit Span and Arithmetic


Most important therapeutic group factors according to Yalom are


Interpersonal learning, catharsis and cohesiveness


Reduced speech, depression and apathy are results of which damage


Left frontal lobe


Grouping students by ability


Tracking


High in control but high in warmth


Authoritative


Hi control but lo warmth


Authoritarian


Lo in control and low in warmth


Neglecting, rejecting, uninvolved

-kids have worse coping skills-The children tend to be antisocial, lack self-regulation, are more immature, and score lower on cognitive tests.


children have difficulty controlling their impulses and, although they are intelligent, they are not motivated to achieve.


Permissive or Laissez-faire


OCPD involves ---- contrary to OCD


orderliness, perfectionism and control


Dopamine Hypothesis


Psychomotor stimulants activate dopamine receptors and anti-psychotic medications causes motor disturbance


Prader-Willi is caused by


Chromosomal deletion


Xtra chromosome results in disorders like


Downs Syndrome and Klinefelter


Missing chromosome and occurs in females (missing another X)


Turner


On MMPI, hi scale 1 (hypochondriasis) and 3 (hysteria), low scale 2 (depression)


Conversion V


F scale score is significantly lower than scores on the L and K scales and indicates an attempt to present in a favorable light


Defensive profile


scale 7 score is significantly lower than scores on scales 6 and 8


Paranoid valley or psychotic V


On MMPI, scale 5 score is significantly lower than scores on scales 4 and 6.


Passive-Aggressive


MMPI scales,


1-Hypochondriasis2-Depression3-Hysteria4-Psychopathic Deviate5-M/F


MMPI scales- II


6-Paranoia7-Psychastenia (Anxiety)8-Schizo9-Mania0-Social Introversion


Frequently used projective test


Rorschach


Elaborative learning or rehearsal


Helps material transferred from short term to long term memory


According to Beck, a depressed person is most likely to maintain


external locus of control and internal responsibility


"zero temptation and 100% self-efficacy"


result of complete behavioral change in the termination stage


Ability to maintain a mental picture after a toy is removed


Eidetic or photographic memory


Seroconversion, as it relates to HIV


process of becoming antibody positive.the conversion from seronegative (HIV negative) to seropositive (HIV positive)


Which lobe controls motor movements?


cerebellum, basal gangila, supplementary motor area and parietal lobe


Frequently used scale to measure orientation


GOATGalveston Orientation and Amnesia Test


SCAD profile on the WAIS-III


Symbol Search, Digit Symbol Coding, Arithmetic and Digit Span


Low Working Memory and Low Processing Speed


indicates ADHD


Reactance


react in a way that is opposite of what is requested or desired


Negative Reinforcement


Escape Conditioning


Smoking cessation outcome


Related to level of dependence


Best tx for GAD


CBT


Mainstream Americans


Internal locus of control and internal locus of responsibility


Working memory of the WAIS-III


Digit span, arithmetic and L-N sequencing


Flooding


Exposure to a previously CS in the absence of a real aversive stimulus


To determine how well an examinee did on a test in terms of a specific standard of performance (norm vs. criterion)?


Criterion-reference


Monoamine neurotransmitter subdivided in 2 categories


(1) catecholamines(2) indolamines


Cathecolamines are -synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine


DOPAMINENOREPIEPI


Indolamine are synthesized from tryptophan


Serotonin


Robber's Cave experiment: children in a summercamp divided into two groups on an arbitrary basis and made to engage in a competition with each other. Hostility and dislike decreased when task was to cooperate.


indicated superordinate goals reduce hostility between groups


Naltrexone - decrease alcohol cravings
Side effects are


nausea, headache, insomnia and anxiety


Pt with Alzheimer's disease has lowest scores on --- of WAIS-III


Performance Subtest:-Perceptual Organization-Processing Speed


Strong Interest Inventory (like all Interest Inventory) predicts


Occupational satisfaction


Tx of Bulimia, what med effect would be most effective


increase serotonin level


Forebrain structure that is important for motivated and emotional behavior


limbic system


Serial position effect


w/o delay, beginning and end will be recalled the bestwith delay, beginning only in long term; end of list is still in short tem


Meds for Parkinson does what


increase dopamine and blocks Ach receptors


Crymptomnesia


memory is mistaken for imagination


Tip of the tongue


person is able to recall parts of an item or related information, but is frustratingly unable to recall the whole item


Blocking


multiple similar memories are being recalled and interfere with each other.


Source confusion


person misremembers seeing an event personally when it was actually seen on tv


Tx for chronic pain


relaxation and coping skills


Reasoning involving by the tendency to move from one specific case to another without taking the general into account


Transduction (occurs in preoperation)


Inability to focus on more than one aspect of a situation or object at a time


Centration


Refers to the inability to transfer one type of conservation to another


Horizontal Decalage


Significant finding for a one-way ANOVA


indicates that population means are different


Primary circular reaction


E.g., thumb sucking


Vegetative Symptoms


sleep difficulties, appetite change, psychmotor retardation, reduced energy level, changes in sexual desire/function


1st degree relatives of schizophrenics are most likely to be diagnosed with


Schizotypal PD


Feigning memory disorder


Loss of personal ID but memory for other events is intact


Greatest increase in suicide rate is among


ages 15-24


In cases of litigation, the key defense for a psychologist is


sufficient record keeping


Murray Bowen's approach to family therapy is strongly influenced by


psychodynamic approach


IPT believes that depression is caused by


disturbances in early life related to attachment


Norm-referenced test


compares a student with the age or grade-level expectancies of a norm group


One way of joining the family


Mimesis


In factor analysis, explained variance of one of the factors


EIGENVALUE


Mini-Mental Status Exam is useful for


screening for Dementia in older adults


Predictors of adolescent suicide


depression, use of drugs/alcohol and antisocial behavior


Explicit memory


Recall or recognition testsactive or conscious role in processing informationsense of remembering specific prior experience


Tonic phase


Extension of the limbs


Clonic phase


violent rhythmic contractions


Purpose of reframing


to increase family's compliance with the therapist directives and the treatment plan in general


Highest suicide rates in men


Older men. Ages 75-79


Reality Therapy


uses WDEP technique-based on 5 survival; to love and belong ; power ; freedom ; and fun


Early remission


there is more than one month but less than 12 months of remission


Sustained


12 months or longer of remission


Adult Attachment Interview


1. autonomous2. pre-occupied3. dismissing


Functional Nocturnal Enuresis


not associated with any particular stage of sleep


Predictors of child psychopathology


Low SES, severe marital discord, large family size, parental criminality and placement outside of home


Broca's area


Left frontal lobe


Wernicke's area


posterior part of temporal lobe


Damage to arcuate fasciculus (nerve fibers that connect Broca's and Wernicke's) result in


Conduction Aphasia


APA record keeping guideline


7 years post-termination or 3 years after minor reaches age of maturity


Leading cause of infant mortality


congenital malformations


Compensatory


Multiple Regression


Views rules as unchangeable are absolute; punishment should fit the consequence


Heteronomous (ages 4-7)


Rules are determined and alterable. Intent of the actor should fit the punishment


Autonomous Reality


Discriminant Analysis is used for


predicting


Structural Equation Model


used to find cause-effect


Inverted U theory


anxiety and performance. Performance is improved when there's moderate anxiety


Tx for Dysthymia vs. MDD


IPT and CBT are effective but not quite effective than it is for MDD


someone with high self-esteem will views his/her achievement


as internal and specific


what brain structure mediates eating and sex, acting as a satisfaction center?


cingulate gyrus


what characteristic will someone who successfully goes through identity and identity confusion phase


Fidelity


Repudiation


adolescent compensates for a lack of identity by fusing with a group that eagerly provides its members with details of an identity: religious cults, military organizations, or hate groups.


Fanaticism


occurs when the person becomes overzealous in identification to a particular role to the point that he or she is intolerant of others.


DSM-IV TR approach uses what approach


Polythetic approach: a person may have some but not all of the possible diagnostic criteria.


BASIC ID: biological, affective, sensations, images, cognitions, interpersonal relationship,drugs--biological functions, nutrition and exercise


Multimodal Approach (Lazarus)


Which is least likely affected by normal aging?


Picture Recognition


tendency to rate at the low end


Strictness or severity bias


Hostede's five cultural dimensions


power distance (a.), uncertainty avoidance (b.), individualism, masculinity (d.), and long-term orientation


Bupropion (Wellbutrin & Zypan)


NDRI (norepinephrine dopamine reuptake inhibitor)


SNRI (selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor)


Stratteri, non-stimulant used for tx of ADHD


SSNRI : Venlaflexin (Effexor) and duloxetine (Cymbalta)


tx of GAD, MDD and PD. less chances for overdose and more rapid onset than tricyclics


Neural development


proliferation, migration, differentation and myelination


Predictor of job turnover


Bio data


Sibling relationship during pre-adolescence


Closeness and Conflict


What part of the Ethical Code�set forth enforceable rules.�?


Ethical Standards


What part discusses the intent, organization, procedural considerations, and scope of application of the Ethics Code?


Introduction


What part provide �aspirational goals to guide psychologists toward the highest ideals of psychology?


Preamble and General Principles


Endogenous Opiates


Endorphines


Exogenous Substance


Heroine


Cingulate Cortex


Emotions and Motivation


Damage to the temporal lobe will produce deficts in


Episodic Memory


Tx for Factitious D/O


Support psychotherapy outpatient


What tx for parasuicidal behaviors (e.g., cutting) found in Borderline Per D/O


Dialectical Behavior Therapy


Hypnagogic


Transition state betweene being awake and falling asleep


More effective when the task is easy (decentralized vs. centralized)


Centralized


Centralized


ALL communication passes through one position or person, have been shown to be more efficient when tasks are mundane and simple.


Covert Modeling


Involves the learning of new behaviors or the altering of existing behaviors by imagining scenes of others interacting with the environment.


Covert Sensitization


An individual imagines he/she is engaging in the undesirable behavior and then imagines an aversive consequence for doing so.


Highest co-morbidity with GAD is


Social Phobia


Partial Reinforcement Effect


organisms respond for a longer period of time during extinction trials when they were previously reinforced on an intermittent schedule than when they were reinforced on a continuous schedule.


Most effective tx for anti-social juvenile offenders


Multi-systemic therapy


Multicultural competence


Awareness, knowledge and skill


HMO will likely approve if


patient has recently shown a decline


American Disabilities Acts


Protects individuals participating in a drug rehab program who are no longer using drugs


To best reduce likelihood of changing someone's persuasive message


Expose to a weak argument against current position


Prefrontal cortext


Working memory NOT motor functions


Women diagnosed with Borderline Personality


Similar to men with Anti-social PD


Amount of variability accounted for


eta squared


Criterion Contamination


increases validity coefficient


a lack of insight into one�s own behavior,
denial, an attempt to create a favorable impression, or the tendency to answer items �false.�


High L scale


Which is predictive of retirement satisfaction?


Participation in activities


Which group is not considered a race?


Hispanics


Federal law regarding HMO requirement for mental health service


short term (not to exceed 20 visits) crisis intervention and medical treatment and referral for alcohol and drug addiction


Psychoanalytic therapist will attribute anxiety to


failure of ego defense mechanism


What school of psychology: is structured and goal-oriented.
relapse prevention is a focus throughout and it is based on an collaborative model?


Beck's Cognitive


Beck Depression II inventory


0 to 13 = minimal depression. 14-19 = mild depression, 20-28 = moderate 29 or higher reflect severe depression.


Differences in size and body type between males and females


Sexual dimorphism


Which is the MOST stable trait (OCEAN)?


Extraversion


Which is the LEAST stable trait?


Neuroticism


5 levels of Maslow's hieracrchy


Physiological, Safety, Social, Esteem and Self-Actualization


Opiate antagonist that is used to treat alcohol
abuse disorders by reducing the desire for alcohol after drinking has stopped and is also often used in maintenance treatment of opiate addiction.


Naltrexone


Bupropion, Varenicline and Nicotine replacement interventions


Tx for nicotine dependence and smoking cessation


Proposes convergent and divergent thinking as dimensions of intelligence


Guilford


Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence


Cattell


Heterogeniety of group members


Positively correlated with creativity and decision making


Brain structure for kids with ADHD


frontal lobe, striatum and cerebellum


For a diagnosis of Tourette's disorder


must have multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic


Areas of the brain that is related to declarative memory are


diencephalon, peripheral cortex and hippocampus


Fielder situational control:


leader-employee relations, task structure, position or legitimate power


Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia highly associated with


GAD


Differences between the groups in experience
rather than age that could be accounting for differences between them on the dependent variable.


Cohort effect. Usually in cross-sectional design


Atrophy of the caudate nucleus


Huntington disease


A term to describe when a therapist�s ability to
recognize or consider other symptoms or conditions is �overshadowed� by one aspect of a client�s symptoms or condition


Diagnostic Overshadowing


States that certain small areas of the brain can take on the function of larger, related areas that have been destroyed


Principles of Equipotential


States that in many types of learning the cerebral cortex acts as a whole


Principle of mass action


States that feedback either reward or punishment will automatically strengthen or weaken responses


Law of Effect


States that the strength of response to a stimulus is not dependent on the strength of the stimulus


All or none principle


Keeps internal conflict or need out of conscious awareness


Primary Gain


Symptoms helps the individual avoid an unpleasant activity or obtain support from the environmnet


Secondary Gain


Pseudocyesis: believes she is pregnant and has physical signs of pregnancy but is not pregnant OR a person who has had one or two unexplained physical symptoms for less than 6 months


Somatoform Disorder NOS


Briequet Syndrome


Somatization D/O


Sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of
an individual�s skin, more generally known as the feeling of �pins and needles� or a limb �falling asleep�


Paresthesia


Paired comparison as opposed to merit comparisons


More precise but difficult because it is time consuming


Relations between the genders are characterized by the coexistence of power differences and intimate interdependence


Ambivalent Sexism Theory


Repeatedly presenting the CS without the US


In-vivo exposure


Yerkes and Dodson


inverted U relationship between arousal and performance


Which of the WAIS subtest is most stable across lifespan


Verbal Comprehension


Primary function of school psychologist


Assess, consult and make recommendations


Damage to the right hemisphere


can produce apathy or undue cheerfulness.Pt will respond indifferently and exaggerated jocularity if rt hemisphere is damage.


Standard Error is NOT


a measure of variability


Rationalist, cognitive therapy includes


cognitive restructuring, thought stopping, and reducing automatic thoughts


Anxiety and depression share which of the following symptoms?


Negative Affect


A predictor that is highly sensitive for identifying the presence of a disorder would most likely result in


Higher false positive


The combination of social avoidance, fear of humiliation, and loneliness are characteristic of


Avoidant PD


Tension-reduction hypothesis proposes that alcohol abuse is due to


Conditioning


The idea that one is unique and not subject to the natural laws that govern others


Personal Fable


Misinformation effect (hindsight bias)


Retroactive Interference


The effects on children of observing aggressive models, such as through television violence, are


both short and long term


What are the two dimensions of leadership?


Consideration and initiating structure


An effective treatment for panic attacks


ANTI-DEPRESSANTS


Substance Dependence


Tolerance-Withdrawal,


Cognitive distortions, such as overgeneralization, personalization, magnification, arbitrary inference, and selective abstraction are reflected statements


of Beck's Cognitive Theory


What is needed for a successful malpractice lawsuit against a psychologist?


Sufficient Harm


Performance generally


Decreases in the presence of others if the desired behavior is not well-learned.If you don't know something too well, having someone watch you can increase your anxiety


Client-centered approach


Congruence between self and experience


Involves episodes of abrupt awakening, usually with a panicky scream; however, a dream is not recalled.


Sleep terror disorder


To determine the degree of association between two variables that are reported in terms of ranks


Spearman Rho


The best predictor(s) for alcoholism


Family hx of alcoholism


Which of the following describes the parents who are most likely to raise very aggressive children?


Parents who use frequent and intermittent violence and have a laissez-faire attitude toward their children's behavior


The experience of REM-rebound occurs most often when


sedatives are discontinued


Which is related to exposure to sexual abuse, sexual harassment or sexual trauma?


Vaginismus involves involuntary contractions of the muscles in the outer third of the vagina when vaginal penetration is attempted) doesn�t have a clear etiology,


Behavioral treatment for obsessions would most likely involve


Deliberate exposure and thought stopping


Folie a deux


Two people who share a delusion of similar content


The risk for a monozygotic (identical) twin of a schizophrenic proband to be diagnosed with Schizophrenia is


46%


The risk for a dizygotic (identical) twin of a schizophrenic proband to be diagnosed with Schizophrenia is


17%


Provides information about a student in the
context of the existing curriculum. The results of such an assessment not only indicate the student's performance level -- they also provide feedback about the instruction itself, so that necessary changes can be made to better fit the student's ability and current knowledge.


Curriculum Assessment


Primary Memory


Short-term Memory


Secondary Memory


Long-term Memory


Sensory Memory


Has unlimited capacity, duration is 2 seconds and it is an external representation of the stimuli.


Alzheimer's usually characterized in 3 stages


Stage 1: which lasts 2-4 years, short-term memory loss begins. Patients in this stage frequently complain about forgetting where they placed things. Stage 2: which lasts 2-10 years, there is further memory impairment (mostly explicit rather than implicit) and they begin having difficulty performing complex tasks, such as balancing a checkbook or going grocery shopping. They may get lost in familiar places and become apathetic.Stage 3:theymay lose the ability to speak and become unable to recognize family, friends, or even themselves. They lose all capacity to care for themselves and have difficulty walking, are incontinent, and are ultimately bedridden and often die of an opportunistic respiratory infection.


Avolition


Lack of initiation, motivation or goal-directed activities and is considered a "negative" symptom of Schizophrenia or Schizophreniform disorder


Anhedonia (b.)


refers to the inability to experience pleasure.


Anti-depressant medication (ADM) vs Cognitive Therapy


ADMs are more effective among severely depressed pts. No difference between Cog Therapy and ADMS among mild to moderate depression


Percentile ranks tend to ________ raw score differences in the middle of the score distribution and _______ raw score differences at the end of the distribution.


percentile ranks tend to overestimate raw score differences in the middle of the score distribution and underestimate raw score differences at the end of the distribution.


Confluence Model


each succeeding child has less of the family's resources available to him or her.-Only child will score the highest


Prevalence rates for Panic Disorder


1 to 2% in community samples


Freedom from Distractibility


Arithmetic and Digit Span


We likely change our attitudes to change our behavior


Cognitive Dissonance


Based on Elkind,


adolescent assumes that one is unique


Flashbulb memories are part of


Episodic memory


Smallest unit of language


Phoneme


Smallest unit of language that carries meaning


Morpheme


A whole word, which, when combined with gestures and intonation can express an entire thought.


Holophrastic


Refers to knowledge we have about our own rather than about the nature of human knowledge in general.


Metacognition


Success Identity


William Glasser


Multiple Hurdles


Not all predictors are administered. If fail in one predictor, others are not administered


Examinees must succeed in ALL predictors


Multiple Cut-OFF


Storke in the left side of the brain


left-right disorientation, Wernicke's aphasia, finger agnosia


Valence refers to


desirability of the outcome


Motivational Interviewing


OARS


Iatrogenic Stressor


One that is produced by the treatment. Loss of companionship is NOT an Iatrogenic


Watson


predict and control behavior


Mini Mental Status Exam


Only cognitive functions


Rational Economic


Places too many demands on the organization


Self-perception


People base their attitude on behaviors


In consultee-centered case consultation, the consultant's role is


SUPERVISOR


Equifinality


Different circumstances and opportunities lead to similar outcomes


Multifinality


Similar conditions results in different outcomes


Parents of antisocial children are usually


Lax and uninvolved


negative item discrimination


more low-achieving examinees answered the item correctly than high-achieving


low F scale score and elevated L and K scale scores


Parental Alienation


Mini Mental Status Exam


screening for Dementia


Simon's decision making


Rational (administrative) decision makers are not always completely rational in making choices


Learned Optimism- M. Seligman


tend to make external, unstable, and specific attributions in response to negative events.