Typical Antipsychotic Drugs

Chlorpromazine (thorazine)Haldol (Haloperidol)Stelazine (trifluoperazine)Prolixin (Fluphenazine)Mellaril (thioridazine)Navane (Thiothixene)

Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs

Clozaril (Clozapine)Risperdal (Risperidone)Zyprexa (Olanzapine)Seroquel (Quetiapine)


High potency antipsychotics are less sedating and have fewer initial side effects.

Therefore, these are tried first (e.g., Haldol, Prolixine, Navane) - Typical Antipsychotics

Side Effects of Lower Potency

Sedation, Antichlonergic effects (drying) , Orthostatic Hypotension and lowering of the seizure threshold

High Potency Side Effects

EPS. All typical or traditional antipsychotics can potentially cause TD

Anti-cholinergic Effects

Drying out or Holding In.S-E typically diminish but do not completely disappear within the first month of antipyschotic use

Orthostatic Hypotension

Dizziness and Lightheadedness on standing up

EPS (Extrapyramidal Symptom) 1
-Movement Related Symptoms

Some are treated through the use of Anticholinergic Agents (ACAs. e.g., Cogentin)


Dystonia: acute and painful muscle spasms of the neck, back, tongue, eyes or larynx-usually pass within 2 weeks
Parkinsonism: sxs persist throughout tx and afflict 12-45%.Treated by lowering dose, switan ching drugs, or using an ACA
Akathisia: common cause to stop taking meds.tx. can be helped by using propranolol (beta blocker), benzos or ACAcauses feelings of dysphoria as werr las jitters or fidgeting. -persist throughout

Neuro Malignant Syndrome

Lethal.Muscle rigidity, altered consciousness, autonomic instability and high fever.-requires emergency, stopping ALL neuroleptics, using IV and administering anti-fever meds

Tardive Dyskinesia (TD)

abnormal movements of the lips, tongue, etc.-arises after at least 6 mos of tx and typically plateaus after 3-6 years without worsening any further. -someitmes, sxs emerge after drugs has been terminated or dose is lowered.-TD is not believed to be progressive and may be reversible.

Lethal with Clozaril-sudden drop in white blood cells usually within hrs or 12 wks of initial administration and manifesting sore throat and fever


Elavil (amitrytyline)Anafranil (clomipramine)Tofranil (imipramine)

Tricyclics (TCA)

Prozac (fluoxetine)Zoloft (sertraline)Paxil (paroxetine)



Nardil (phenelzine)Parnate (tranylcpromine)

Depression with Sleep Problems

Desyrel (trazadone) or Sinequan (doxepin-TCA), both have hypnotic effects

Panic Disorder /Anti-Depressants

In addition to Xanax (alprzolam) and Klonopin (clonazepam), PD is treated with antidepressants including: Tofranil (imipramine-TCA) and Paxil (paroxetine) or Prozac (fluoxetine)-SSRI


responds to TCA - Anafranil (clomipramine) and SSRI, Prozac (fluoxetine)

Chronic Pain Disorder

responds to TCA, Elavil (amitryptiline), Norpramin (desipramine) and Sinequan (doxepin)

Bulimia and Premature Ejaculation

TCAs and SSRIs

TCA-Side Effects

Can trigger manic episodes in bipolar patients. Cause more anticholinergic effects than do even the antipsychoticsSedationn, orthostatic hypotension, weight gain, nausea and sexual dysfunction

MAOI side effects

tyramine-induced hepertensive crisis, orthostatic hypotension, weight gain, edema, sexual dysfunction and insomnia.-strict dietary compliance


Xanax (alprazolam)Klonopin (clonazepam)Valium (diazepam)Ativan (lorazepam)


Anxiety Reduction


Induce sedation and improve sleep

Stress Inoculation Training (SIT)

3 phase tx approach:1. education about stress2. teaching coping strategies using relaxation trng and role playing3. in-vivo stress inducing

Self-Instruction Therapy

combines modeling and graduated practice with elements of RET, to help patients that have problems with task completion.

Interpersonal Psychotherapy

Treatment of Depression

PTSD and Alcohol Dependence dx

Treat Alcohol Dependence first!

Cognitive Processing Therapy is effective for rape (PTSD)

Motivational Interviewing

for Substance Abuse and Substance Dependence Tx

Contingency Contracting

Disruptive Behavior Disorder (ADHD, ODD)

Panic Disorder Tx

CBT and Relaxation Training

Buspar (Buspirone)

Non-BZs anxiolytic. Does not cause sedation, cognitive impairment, or withdrawal. Low potential for abuse and dependence. -requires 2-4 wks to take in effects and cannot be taken "as needed". -effective for GAD

Beta blockers (Inderal-Propanolol)

For somatic manifestation of anxiety, especially for social and performance anxiety.

Rebound Insomnia

Discontinuing the use of BZ causes insomnia. BZs disrupt the normal sleep cycle and suppress REM sleep. REM rebound can cause vivid disturbing dreams.

Most addictive BZs are those

rapid onset (providing a buzz)short half-life (can cause mini-withdrawal)taking the drug as needed encourages dependency

Alcohol Withdrawal/BZ Withdrawal

Stage 1: tremors, sweating, agitation and increased autonomic reations.Stage 2: hallucinations and panicStage 3: single or multiple grand mal seizures

Anti-convulsants Meds

Tegretol (Carbamazepine)Neurontin (Gabapentin)Depakote (Divalproex)Depakene (Valproic Acid)


Typically used when bipolar disorder does not respond to lithium or lithium is contraindicated. ORto treat impulse control d/oTegretol = more effective than lithium in cases of rapid cycling or dysphoric manic episodesTegretol = neurological chronic pain disorders


Increase the level and effect of Catecholamines!

Stimulant Meds

Dexedrine (dextroamphetamine)Ritalin (Methylphenidate)Cylert (Pemoline)Adderall (Amphetamine)


ADHD, Tx resistant depression, Tx resistant obesity, narcolepsy and AIDS, cancer

Stimulants Side-Effects

Can cause dependence and drug abuseWithdrawal Sxs: increased appetite, weight gain, increased sleep, decreased energy, paranoid sxs.

Peripheral Nervous System

Somatic : controld motor movementAutonomic: involuntary Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic

Response Polarization

People in groupsto becomemore extreme in their views

Risky Shift

People in groups to make riskier decisions than they would if they were deciding alone


Group members are seeking concurrenc,consensus and unaninmity. Involves suspending critical evaluative capacities in decision making.

Prozac (fluoxetine) SSRI

LEAST likely to affect concentration, attention and memory

Elavil (amitryptyline) TCA
Chlorpromazine(thorazine) antipsychotic

High levels of anticholinergic side effects: drymouth, blurry vision, confusion and decreased memory


Causes drowsiness, mild cognitive deficit and amnesia

Job Evaluation

Determines finanacial worth of a job to an organization

Job Analysis

Analyzes the tasks and operations performed on a job as well as the training and education needed for the job-Can devise and validate measures of job performance


prefers majority group

Encounter (dissonance)

Conflict between old self-deprecating attitudes and newly emerging appreciating attitudes

Aversive Counterconditioning

Focus is on weakening the CR

Schein Career Anchors

Self-concept as an anchor or stabilizing force determining what future occupational decisions will be made

Donald Super's Theory

Career Rainbow-developmental

Holland's Theory

Personality-Job Fit (RIASEC)

Rosenthal Effect

Experimenter Expectancy or self-fulfilling prophecy

Hawthorne Effect

Improve performance when they are being watched

Overjustification Hypothesis

If children who enjoy reading receive rewards for reading, their interest in reading will actually decrease.External rewards or incentives are offered for activities that had previously been intrinsically motivated, there is subsequently a decrease in interest in the rewarded activity

Equity Theory

Ratio of input and output


People we like most are those who initially don't like us and then change their perspective to come to like us.


Strength of the relationship

Mediator Variable

Explains the relationship (why there's a relationship)

Sleep Wake Cycle (Brain Structure)

Hypothalamus in the Temporal Lobe


Strong identity with the minority group and rejection of the dominant culture (Racial Pride)

Solomon Four Groups

Controls for the effects of testing (Practice Test)Subjects are divided into 4 groups:1) pre-intervention-post2)pre-no intervention-post3) intervention-post4) post

Latin Square

Counterbalancing design and controls for carryover effects during repeated measure

Bipolar Disorder I

Has to have 1 or more MANIC or MIXED episode!

Job Enrichment

Increasing worker's responsibilitiesHigh in growth-needIncrease satisfaction and performance, as well as Decreased turnover and absenteeism

Selection Rate

# of openings: # of applicants

Incremental Validity

Optimized if base rate is .5 and selection ratio is .1If there is a large pool of applicants with relatively few openings.

Type I

Saying there's a difference when there isn't!False Positive

Increasing True Positive

Increases False Positive

McNaughton Rule

Insanity Defense

Self-Instructional Training

Repetition, Graded practice and cognitive restructuring

OCD gender
Prevalence of OCD in girls is much lower in boys

Equally common in males and females. But, males develop btwn 6-15 yrs and females develop btwn 20-29 yrs.

Protocol Analysis

Verbalizing your thought process as you perform the task

Crisis Intervention

Secondary prevention.Early identification and treatmentScreening

Primary prevention

immunization, condoms, safety air bagsPreventing problems from occurring.

Leadership in Organization

Greater satisfaction + Democratic leadersProductivity higher under Authoritarian and Democratic leaders than Laissez-faire

Gerstmann's Syndrome

Agraphia, Acalculia, Rt-lt disorientation and finger agnosiaDominant Parietal lobe

Kluver Bucy Syndrome

Placidity, apathy, hyperphagia and hypersexuality

Studies on the nature of teachers' interactions with students have shown that:

Gender of students NOT teacher, has an impact on the teacher's interactions with students.

Who exercises privilege?


Who asserts privilege?


Cattel-Horn-Carroll theory

3 strata model: g, broad cognitive abilities, narrow cognitive abilities.


Four basic underlying factors to the construct of intelligence

NURTURIST view of language development

Children learn to speak through exposure to adult speech.

Primacy Effect

Impression FormationTendency for initial information to carry more weight than information received later.

Kochanska development of conscience

related to Parenting Style and Child's Temparement

Piaget's Moral Development

Related to Cognitive Development

Categories of Seizures

a. Partial (electrical abnormalities in a focal area of the brain)b. Generalized (electrical abnormalities throughout the brain)

Partial Seizures

a. Simple Partial: size of the affected area can be as small as a thumb or half of the body.-Pt remains conscious during the seizure and can later describe it in detail.b. Complex Partial: begin with a few minutes of disorientation then staggering, purposeless movements and aimless wandering.-Loss of consciousness

Prospective Memory

Remembering that one had planned to do something at a particular time.

Procedural Memory

Implicit or non-declarativeprocedures that are remembered automatically without conscious awareness (e.g., riding a bike)

Declarative Memory

ExplicitInvolves conscious recollection of information or experience

2 types of declarative memory

1. episodic : autobiographical events2 semantic: meaning of words and facts


Adjusting to reality demands by reorganizing, modifying and expanding cognitive structures.E.g., adding a 2nd floor


Taking in a new experience and incorporating it into existing cognitive structuree.g., putting books on shelf

HIPAA documentation

must be kept for 6 yrs. when it was created or when it was last in effect

Malnutrition during fetal period results in

decrease number of brain cells

After birth trauma

can result in reduced number of axonal or dendritic growth


turn back onto the self what they would like do toothers. Can result in self-destructive behavior.


People distance themselves from their feelings throughdistraction, humor, generalization and asking questions rather thanmaking statements


-people have inborn capacities for purposive,goal-directed behavioral-pathology are thought to be due to incongruence betweenthe self (true feelings) and experience (ability to be aware of thesefeelings and express them to others).
-empathy, warm and genuineness


Birth to 7 mosSensory experiences


Temporal sequence is the only conception of causality. Transference is a parataxic distortion


causal sensation, logical andanalytical thinking and ability to predict cause from knowledge oftheir effects

Gay Identity Model

SensitizationConfusionAssumption Commitment

Sensitization (Gay Model)

Pre-pubescent. Feels different from peers and ultimately internalizes a negative self-concept

Confusion (Gay model)

Around age 18. attempt to become heterosexual

Assumption (Gay Model)

Manage social stigma. increased contact with other gays and lesbians. Acknowledging homosexual identity while having negative attitudes

Commitment (Gay Model)

Integration of homosexual identity

Ritalin (side effects)

loss of appetite, insomnia, headaches, GI distress, sedation and dry mouth

Lithium (side effect)

Weight gain and tremors

Rater leniency

Use forced-choice format,. Rater selects adjectives from a pairs of equally desirable or undesirable choices


based on critical incidents (hypothetical situations)

Persuasion Model

1. Peripheral 2. Central

Peripheral (Persuasion)

Focus on aspects that are not central to the message, but rather are peripheral to it, such as the speaker's appearance, attractiveness, eloquence and expertise

Central (Persuasion)

Message elaboration. Person pays attention to the message and thinks deeply about the relevant information

Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Approach

1. Microsystem2. Mesosystem3. Exosystem4. Macrosystem5. Chronosystem

Arithmetic and Digit Span

Both load on the working memory-Affected by ACUTE hearing infection

Wernicke's Aphasia

Cannot COMPREHEND language, but speak fluentlyHas difficulty repeating verbal task

Broca's Aphasia

Difficulties in articulation, changes in prosody and some difficulties in comprehension

Conduction Aphasia

Connection between Broca's and Wernicke's is affected. Intact comprehension and fluency but cannot Repeat words.

Best predictor of adolescent alcohol use

Level of alcohol use by parents and peers

Retroactive Inhibition

when new info interferes with the recall of PREVIOUSLY learned info

Social facilitation occurs most frequently when the task is

SIMPLE, Familiar, Routine

Most powerful memory aid

Visual Imagery

Which arithmetic operation affect the mean

Addition and Subtraction

Which arithmetic operation affect the SD and the variance

Multiplication and Division

Sending bills to collection agency

ETHICAL as long as the patient is informed first. It is preferable, though not necessary, to inform the patient of your policy at the outset of therapy

Best tx for elderly patients with paranoia


Interval Sampling

When behavior has no beginning or end

Event Sampling

When a behavior occurs infrequently

BiPolar Disorder

Consistently linked to Genetic Factors.Stress has been linked to the onset of 1st and 2nd manic episodes.Has high rates co-morbid of substance abuse

Rehm's Self-Control model of depression

Integrate cognitive as well as behavioral models of depression. -result of negative self-evaluations, lack of self-reinforcement and high rates of self-punishment.

Classical Test Theory

views individual test score as sum of true score variability and error score variability (X=T+E)

Empirical Criterion Keying

MMPI. items are chosen based on their ability to discriminate group membership.

Ipsative Measure

only information on the tester, w/o info about how the individual compares to others

Item Response Theory

used to calculate to what extent a specific item on a test correlates with an underlying construct. -looks at subject's performance on a test item as representing the degree to which the subject has a latent trait

Beta blockers side effect

Less common: depression, anxiety and thought disturbance


caused by a genetic defect.-impairments in the metabolism of amino acids cause toxic chemicals to remain unmetabolized, resulting in severe mental retardation.

Long tem Potentiation (LTP)

Affect memory

False Alarm

False Positive


False Negative


True Positive

Correct Rejection

True Negative

Barnum Effect

People's tendency to agree that vague descriptions apply to them (e.g., newspaper horoscopes)

Avoidant Babies

Rarely cry when mother leaves and then ignore her upon return

Making test more difficult

Raises predictor cutoff# of FP and TP are decreased# of TN and # of FNs are increased

Covert Sensitization

Aversive conditioning conducted in imagination and is used exclusively for problematic behaviors like drinking or cigarette smoking


form of CBT that is confrontive and focuses on irrational beliefs


point out incongruence between self and experience


Evaluate the levels of differentiation in each family member

Selective Mutism

sign of fear and tx is guided imagerySSRIs are commonly prescribed

DNA and RNA have been associated with

Memory and genetics

Immediate memory

Sensory memory remains intact in amnesia

In pts with amnesia, which remains intact?

Immediate or Sensory Memory

Source Memory

Ability to remember the context in which material was learned


"critical period" appearance of a stimulus during a critical period that determines the nature of the stimulus in a stimulus-response pairing

Which research design is least likely threatened by history?

ABAB design

Sampling Error

applies to the standard error of the mean

James Marcia-Identity Model

Diffusion: ForeclosureMoratoriumAchievement

Diffusion (ID Model)

No crisis and No commitment


Commitment but NO crisis


Crisis but NO commitment

Conformity is bet when

moderate group size (about 7) and unanimous members

Theme Interference Problems

Consultee-centered case consultation

Intervention that has the lowest recidivism of spousal abuse

Arrest and Imprisonment

An individual who is uncomfortable with his or her homosexual orientation

Sexual Disorder, NOS

Alternate approach to treating chronic pain



May be used and solicited as LONG as they are not solicited from current patients or those vulnerable to undue influence.

AA adheres to

Disease Model of Addiction

Marlatt's Model of Addiction

Overlearned Habit.-Uses CBT for relapse prevention

Conducting an ABAB design, risk is

Failure of DV to return to baseline

Neo-Freudians emphasize in

Social Interaction

Substance most likely to cause hallucinations upon WITHDRAWAL

-Phenobarbital (barbiturates)-Alcohol, sedatives, hypnotics and anxiolytics

Opiod Withdrawal (Heroin)

Flu-like Symptoms

Amphetamines Withdrawal

Dysphoria, Fatigue, Unpleasant dreams, increased appetite and psychomotor agitation

A child with a reading disability

Will continue to have problems in adulthood.

Reliability Coefficient

How likely a person will maintain his or her position in the group if an equivalent test is given

Kohlberg's 3 Levels of Moral Development

1. Pre-conventional: Compliance with rules to avoid punishment and get rewards.a. Punishment-Obedience b. Instumental Hedonism

Kohlberg's 3 Levels of Moral Development

2. Conventional: Conforming to rules to get social approval. a. Good Boy/Good Girlb. Law and Order

Kohlberg's 3 Levels of Moral Development

3. Post-Conventionala. Morality of Contract, Rights and Lawsb. Morality of Conscience

Mediated Generalization

Stimulus Generalization

Which methods can help control HALO EFFECT?

1. Training the raters2. Forced response format in which the rater is forced to choose between 2 eaually desirable or undesirable attributes3. BARS: objective rating methods

Relative Methods

-does NOT help control halo effects-compares employees with one another.

Opiod Withdrawal (Heroin)

Flu like symptoms

Phenobarbital (Barbiturates) withdrawal causes


Reliability Coefficient

Most people will maintain their relative ranking or position in the group on retesting.

Idiosyncracy Credits refer to

a group's tolerance of an individual's disregard for group norms. They can be earned by initially conforming to the group norms.

Classic Aging Profile

Maintenance or enhanced crystallized (e.g., vocabulary, information) intelligence with diminished fluid (e.g., digit symbol, picture arrangement) intelligence

Approach-Approach Conflict

person must choose between 2 desirable alternative and subsequent to choosing, slightly devalues the alternative not chosen.


Choices between something that is positive but has negative consequence. E.g., going to a party but gets grounded for going to the party

Chi-square CANNOT be run

When repeated observations are made

Prescribing the symptom

Strategic Family Therapy

Concern for Double Binds

Communications Family Therapy or MRI from Palo Alto

Serotonin and GABA

involved with mood disorders


associated with anxiety, epilepsy and schizophrenia


Used to describe single subject approaches


Group Approach

Ipsative data

results from a foced -choice format. It can only describe relative strengths or interests within a subject and cannot be used for comparisons across subjects.


Ability to correctly reject the null. If power is reduced, less likely to correctly reject the null.

Type II or Beta

incorrectly accepting the null hypothesis. Fails to reject an a false nullif a null hypothesis states a patient is healthy, and the patient is in fact sick, but the test fails to reject the hypothesis, falsely suggesting that the patient is healthy.Saying there isn't a difference when there is. False Negative

Type I or Alpha

Null hypothesis is falsely rejected.Saying there is a difference when there isn't. For example, if a null hypothesis states a patient is healthy, and the patient is indeed healthy, but the test rejects this hypothesis, falsely suggesting that the patient is sick.False Positive. Test says pt is sick, but really healthy

The fetish object is:

Conditioned Stimulus.Sexual excitement is the response

To distinguish between conditioned and unconditioned

Ask the question, Is the response universal? Does everybody has the same response?

HI LPC do best

in MODERATELY favorable situations

Low LPC do best

at the extremes (either highly favorable or unfavorable)

Standard Error of MEASUREMENT

-Average Amount of Error in calculating each subject's IQ score.

Standard Error of the ESTIMATE

-Average amount of error in Predicting each subject's high school GPA

Standard Error of the Mean

-Average amount of error in the GROUP's Mean in relation to POPULATION Mean

Standard Deviation

Average Amount of Spread in the group's IQ scores

Integrity vs. Despair (Late Adulthood)
Age 55 to death

Outcome = Wisdom

Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood)
Age: 35 to 55

Outcome: Capacity to care for others and to give to future generations

Intimacy vs Isolation (Early Adulthood)
Age 18-35

Outcome: Affiliation and Love

Identity vs Role Confusion
Age 12-18

Outcome: Devotion and Fidelity

Industry vs Inferiority
Age 6-12

Outcome: Competence

Initiative vs Guilt
Age 3-5

Outcome: Purpose

Autonomy vs Shame
Age 18 months - 3 years

Outcome: Self-control, courage and will

Trust vs Mistrust
Age 0-18 months

Outcome: Hope

Chronic Middle Ear Infection

Will have problems with verbal comprehension, including vocabulary, similarities and word reasoning

Acute Hearing Infection

Will have problems with working memory (i.e., digit span and arithmetic)

Sensitive Period

Certain things occur for development to proceed normally, if they don't occur, future events May Be Able to compensate

Critical Period

Certain things must occur for development to proceed. If they don't, person WILL NOT be able to compensate-Physical development has critical periods

Stroop Color Interference

Assess Frontal Lobe deficits

Huntington's Disease

Inherited disease marked by motor disturbances

When ethical guidelines conflict with the law...

psychologists make known his or her commitment to the Ethics Code and attempt to resolve the conflict responsibly.

9 year old is asked why one should not steal...

Because one can be punished for ste

9 year old is asked why one should not steal...

Because one can be punished for stealing!

Diagnosis of Dementia, Alzheimer's Type

made by neuropsychological testing and clinical history

Confabulation on the Rorschach

Cognitive impairment (e.g., MR) It's a claw, it's a lobster!

Freud / Erikson I

Latency / Industry vs. Inferiority (age 6 to 12)

Freud / Erikson II

Phallic / Initiative vs guilt (age 3-6)

Freud / Erikson III

Genital / Identity vs. Role confusion (age 12-18)

Alzheimer's neurotransmitter

Decreased Acetylcholine

Depression (neurotransmitter)

Norepinephrine and Serotonin

Less common S/E of beta blockers

Depression, anxiety and thought disturbances

Critics of Piaget

Piaget underestimated children's abilities at certain ages

Consultant working with employees in order to improve the implementation of a program

Consultee-Centered Administrative Consultation

How to develop a program for customer relations. Focus on the program itself

Program-Centered Administrative Consultation

Consultant works with the consultee on his or her difficulties with patients

Consultee-Centered Case Consultation

Focus on helping the consultee with a particular patient

Client-Centered Case Consultation

Structure responsible for sleep wake cycle

Hypothalamus, located in the temporal lobe

Common cause of MR

during embryonic stage of development

Attribution to depression, helplessnes and hopelessness

Internal, Stable and Global

Correlation of IQ scores among siblings

= .50

Rational-Economic Model (Classical decision theory)

Compiling all relevant information, investigating all possible solutions and choosing the very best one -rarely implemented because it is time consuming

Behavioral Decision Theory

Recognition of Real-life Limits, adopts a satisficing style, implements the first proposal that is adequate

Frame of Reference

used to improve the accuracy of performance ratings.


extraneous variable is unanticipated. co-varying out an extraneous variable.

Extraneous variable

a variable that correclates with the outcome measure

Quality Assurance

focuses on availability, adequacy and appropriateness of services

Utilization Review

Necessity of procedures and cost

In psychoanalytic theory, mania masks

underlying depression

Eruption of id impulses into the ego

results in Anxiety and an attempt to bolstering defense mechanisms

Broca's area

located in the left frontal lobe, which controls the muscles that produce speech. -includes difficulties iwth speech production and fluency

Test-retest reliability would be the most appropriate type of reliability for

a test measuring an enduring trait

What type of evaluation if consultant is evaluating the program on an on-going basis as it is being implemented?

Formative Evaluation

What type of evaluation if consultant evaluate at the end of the program?

Summative Evaluation

What type of consultation if consultant focuses on helping a consultee on some genral clinical issues?

Consultee-centered CASE consultation

What type of consultation if consultant focuses on helping consultees overcome problems that limit programmatic change?

Consultee-centered ADMINISTRATIVE consultation

What risk factor results in reduced number of brain cells or neurons?

Fetal Malnutrition

What factor helps neuronal growth, develop more axons and dendrites and increases connections?

Brain development after birth in response to stimulation and experience

Information will be most likely transferred to long-term memory when it is


What extends the capcaity of short-term memory?


How long does HIPAA requires that all documentation be kept?

6 years.

Concurrent vs. Predictive Validity

Criterion-related validityConcurrent and Predictive difference is that in concurrent tests are taken at the same time.Predictive: test is taken and then a few months later correlation is checked with another measure

2 scales that do not correlate

Discriminant (Divergent) validityCorrect for attenuation of error

Canon-Bard Theory

Emotions and physiological experience are simultaneous


"we see a bear, then we run""you lose a fortune, you cry"-emotions is followed by an action

Schacter and Singer (2 factor theory of emotion)

People search for environmental cues to interpret their unexplained emotions

Exposing individuals to arguments against their views, then refuting (disproving) the argument

may serve to inoculate them against persuasive views


refers to the person's belief that effort will result in successful task performance (similar to self-efficacy)


belief that success on the task will result in rewards


Value that the reward has for the person, or how desirable the reward is.

Equity Theory

input vs output compared to other employees

Interest Tests

good predictors of job choice but NOT job performance

Performance is a function of

opportunity (environmental varibales and organizational support), capacity/ability (individual attributes) and willingness/motivation (work effort)

Job context

lower level needs. dissatisfaction

Rational Economic Model of decision making

All facts and all possible alternative solutions be analyzed before choosing the optimal solution-oppostive to administrative approach-more complete knowledge base

Expert Power

supervisor's expertise because they the education and training


Rule-regulated, orderly and unambiguous


like the opportunity to influence others and obtain power.Transformational Leaders

Positive feedback loop

deviation-amplifying loop

Negative feedback loop

deviation dampening. decreases the likelihood of changes and helps maintain the homeostatic state

Circular questioning

Milan model


taking things as a whole-result is person is gullible and compliant


results in paranoia


results in self-desctructive behavior

Fundamental rule of psychoanalysis

Free Association

Escape Paradigm

Aversive stimulus cannot be avoided.Punishment is inevitable

Cronbach's alpha

highest when similar in content, but different in temperament.-reliability is highest when test items are homogenous and test takers are heterogeneous

Coefficient Alpha

KR-subtype of internal consistency. by taking the mean of all possible split halves

Random Selection

Increases external validity

Random assignment

increases internal validity

Assumption to both parametric and nonparametric statistics

Random Selection

Fundamental Attribution Error

tendency to overemphasize DISPOSITIONAL factors when making attirbutions about the behavior of other people

Self-serving Bias

You attribute your success to your OWN ability (internal factors) but you attribute your failure to the shortcomings of others (external factors)

Actor-observer Bias

You and another fail.-You attribute your failure to external or situational factors while you attribute the other person's failure to internal or dispositional factors

When a listener feels pressured,

Reactance happens.-resistance to persuasion increased

Social Facilitation

Coaction (presence of others working alongside an individual) and audience (presence of a passive observer).-enhances performance of simple, well-learned behaviors but impairing performance on complex, newly-learned behaviors

Group Tipping

Make each contribution public

In order to help a group resist persuasion,

Mild argument for the opposition and then refute those arguments


Meaning is based on what is explicitly verbalized (actual words)


the situation or context and non-verbal cues significantly affect the meaning of what is communicated

Internal responsibility, External control

It's my fault and there's nothing I can do about it


occurs when there is both a loss of cultural id as well as little interest in the dominant culture

Assimilation (Berry's acculturation model)

When people don't maintain their cultural id and adopt the attitudes and views of the dominant culture


When people value their original culture and avoid itneractions with the dominant culture


When people both value their own cultures as well as seek interactions with the dominant culture

MMPI- K scale

Measures guardedness or defensiveness.Moderator variable, by adding points to the clinical scales

L scale

naive attempt to present favorably

F scale

attempts to fake bad, random responding, overall distresss and pathology, measures infrequently endorsed items.


response inconsistency

Halo Bias

EACH employee the same on all dimensions of job performance

Frame of Reference

decrease rater bias-ability of raters to assign accurate performance ratings

Critical Incident Technique

incidents are identified by the supervisor who observes an employee while s/he works

Most predictive of job performance across different jobs and job settings

From OCEAN personality type:-Conscientiousness

Best predictor of job performance

General mental ability tests(Cognitive)

What is useful when errors that occur during on-the-job training would be too costly?

Vestibule Training

According to Holland, the optimal situation is for the job environment to match the individual's,

Personality (RIASEC)

In Expectancy Theory, Instrumentality refers to:

the relationship between performance and outcome

Selection of a leadership style, according to Hersey and Blanchard's, should be based on:

Subordinate's Job Maturity

Job satisfaction has the strongest inverse correlation with

Turnover rate

A transformational leader is most liekely to use:

Framing--describing an organizations' goals and activities in ways that make them more meaningful to employees

Decision Tree

Vroom, Yetton and Jago

Social loafing occurs

when group is large and task is additive

IQ rate for identical twins reared together


Learning CAN occur without reinforcement


Biological sibling reared together


Pro and Retro in memory interference

Refers to which material is being interfered withIf new material (pro) and old material (retro)

Biological parent/child reared together


Cross-sequential design

Cross sectional + Longitudinal

Age related decline in IQ is most likely to be found in what design?

cross-sectional because it is susceptible to cohort (intergenerational) effects

According to Schaie, which IQ domain showed significan decline prior to age 60?

Perceptual Speed

Optimal item difficulty level for a T/F test


D = 1.0 in item discrimination index

upper group answers correctly and none in the lower group

Slope (steepness) of the item response curve indicates the item's:


The steeper the slope

the greater the discrimination

What reliability statistic to use to estimate the effects of lengthening a test item

Spearman Brown

what statistic to use when test items are scored dichotomously (right or wrong)


Test-retest reliability

Coefficient of stability

Mono-trait and heteromethod (same trait/ different method) coefficients are large,

Convergent Validity

Heterotrait-monomethod (different traits / same method) coefficients are small

Divergent / discriminant validity

Which defines the relationship between a predictor's relaibility coefficient and its criterion-related validity coefficient?

validity coefficient cannot exceed the square root of its reliability coefficient.

Percentile ranks and standard scores share in common

Both reference an examinee's score to those achieved by examinees in the standardization sample

Scores on extraneous variable

correlated with scores on the DV

Clusters (groups) of subjects rather than individual subjects are

selected from the population

Cluster sampling involves

randomly selecting pre-existing groups of individual from the population

Vicarious Liability

Supervisors and employers may be legally responsible for the actions of their supervisees and employees.

Protects a client's confidentiality in the context of legal proceedings


When consulting with colleagues, psychologists do not disclose confidential information that reasonably could lead to the id of client with whom they have a confidential information

unless they have obtained prior consent of the person

It is not necessary,

to get client's permission when his/her identity will not be revealed

Career Anchor

self-conceptmotivation of priorities that define how people see themselves and hteir work.


Norepinephrine and Dopamine

Heteronomous Morality

Preschool children who believe thatrules are absolute and unchangeable

Consequences of an act. Good behavior is rewarded and bad beahvior is punished


Desire to maintain existing social laws, rules and norms


self-chosen priinciples

Post conventional

Refers to disorders of a functional system. It is typically used for problems in movement such as incoordination, often accompanied by slurred speech.


Inability or deficit in using or understanding language.



Dependent on learning and education

Negative attitudes based on sexual orientation,

Sexual prejudice

refers to heterosexuals' dread of being in close quarters with homosexuals and homosexuals' self-loathing.


parents have the right not only to inspect and review their children's school records but also to challenge the contents of records.

Buckley Ammendment

It indicates the proportion of variability shared by the two variables, or the proportion of variability in one variable that can be accounted for by variability in the other.

Coefficient of determination

Stimulate divergent thinking


Howard's phase model


In depressed pts, one draws a specific conclusion without supporting evidence, or even in the face of contradictory evidence.

Arbitrary inference

Client therapy matching predicts

treatment length

changing or adapting to the environment by altering one�s own behaviors or responses


perspective involves focusing on extrinsic distinctions that have meaning for the observer of the culture or society


perspective involves focusing on the intrinsic distinctions that are meaningful to members of a particular culture or society.


refers to changing or adapting to the environment by effecting changes in the environment.


Self-esteem is enhanced by believing one�s own group (the
ingroup) is attractive and belittling the members of the other groups (the outgroups)

Social identity

when clear internal cues are absent, individuals infer feelings and beliefs by observed behavior or external cues

self-perception theory

individuals need and seek confirmation of their self-concept, whether the confirmation is positive or negative


Anterograde amnesia and proactive inhibition

both problems remembering after the trauma

retroactive interference vs. retrograde amnesia

problems with remembering before the trauma

associated features of Somatoform D/o

anxiety and depression

Tiedeman and O'Hara based their career development model on

ego identity model

natural and similarities in grammar are present in many different languages is associated with

Nativist theory

Larry P vs. Riles case

-use of standardized intelligence tests for assessing children for placement in special classes for the mentally retarded.-banned the use of IQ tests in the placement of minority children in special education classes.

Point-biserial correlation

one dichotomous variable and one continuous


social constructivism. social and cultural factors. influenced reciprocal teaching


cognitive constructivism

Of the big 5 personality, which is the strongest predictor of job satisfaction

Neuroticism. low neuroticism and high extraversion

Of the big 5 personality, which is the strongest predictor of job performance


Most affected factor in WAIS-III among TBI patients

Processing Speed

Contemplation stage

aware of the problem and thinking of change

inability to recognize familiar objects by sight

visual agnosia

standard error of estimate

how well the equation fits the data. how far we can expect to make predictions

According to Beck's cognitive-behavioral model, automatic thoughts are

interpretations of a situation that determine one's behavioral and emotional responses

hyperthermia, altered consciousness, tachycardia, muscle rigidity, and autonomic dysfunction

symptoms of NMS from antipsychotic

In Dissociative Amnesia,

memory loss is usually for information acquired after the emotional trauma that brings on the symptoms

Tendency of individuals who start off with similar views to end up with a more extreme position after group discussion

Group polarization

Absence (petit mal) seizures are located in the


Partial seizures are located in the

temporal lobe

Damage to the prefrontal cortex affects

memory and attention

Employee has low ability but high willingness

Leadership style = selling

High ability but low willingness employee

Participatory style

High in task and accepting responsibility


Low in accepting responsibility and ability to do the task


Potential negative side effects of SSRI

Worsen sleep and anxiety symptoms

Biographical information form

predicts job turnover

Selye's GAS

Alarm: after a person becomes aware of the stressful situationResistance: summon their resources and meet the challengeExhaustion: after trauma is over

Highest rate of suicide occurs among

Divorced parents

Views patient's symptoms as pathological (brief therapy or crisis intervention)

Brief Therapy

Betablockers effect on the receptor site

antagonist.blocking access to the neurotransmitter site

Pooled variance

Population variances are equal

When there is a brief delay, recall is best for words

in the beginning of the list

Beta or Type II error

retaining a false null. failing to detect a true effect

Low heterotrait and low heteromethod

High in divergent validity


associated with productivity, satisfaction, absenteeism

Compressed workweek

Less impact on absenteeism

Violence against lesbians and gays


NV measure of intelligence for deaf people

Hiskey and Nebraska

Leading cause of death in the US across all age groups

Heart disease followed with cancer

According to Piaget, cognitive adaptation to the work environment is achieved through

accommodation and assimilation

Hallucinations after continued use


Recurrence of hallucinations long after intoxication is the result of


Children with ADHD are most likely to score lowest on the WISC-III

Digit Span and Arithmetic

Most important therapeutic group factors according to Yalom are

Interpersonal learning, catharsis and cohesiveness

Reduced speech, depression and apathy are results of which damage

Left frontal lobe

Grouping students by ability


High in control but high in warmth


Hi control but lo warmth


Lo in control and low in warmth

Neglecting, rejecting, uninvolved

-kids have worse coping skills-The children tend to be antisocial, lack self-regulation, are more immature, and score lower on cognitive tests.

children have difficulty controlling their impulses and, although they are intelligent, they are not motivated to achieve.

Permissive or Laissez-faire

OCPD involves ---- contrary to OCD

orderliness, perfectionism and control

Dopamine Hypothesis

Psychomotor stimulants activate dopamine receptors and anti-psychotic medications causes motor disturbance

Prader-Willi is caused by

Chromosomal deletion

Xtra chromosome results in disorders like

Downs Syndrome and Klinefelter

Missing chromosome and occurs in females (missing another X)


On MMPI, hi scale 1 (hypochondriasis) and 3 (hysteria), low scale 2 (depression)

Conversion V

F scale score is significantly lower than scores on the L and K scales and indicates an attempt to present in a favorable light

Defensive profile

scale 7 score is significantly lower than scores on scales 6 and 8

Paranoid valley or psychotic V

On MMPI, scale 5 score is significantly lower than scores on scales 4 and 6.


MMPI scales,

1-Hypochondriasis2-Depression3-Hysteria4-Psychopathic Deviate5-M/F

MMPI scales- II

6-Paranoia7-Psychastenia (Anxiety)8-Schizo9-Mania0-Social Introversion

Frequently used projective test


Elaborative learning or rehearsal

Helps material transferred from short term to long term memory

According to Beck, a depressed person is most likely to maintain

external locus of control and internal responsibility

"zero temptation and 100% self-efficacy"

result of complete behavioral change in the termination stage

Ability to maintain a mental picture after a toy is removed

Eidetic or photographic memory

Seroconversion, as it relates to HIV

process of becoming antibody positive.the conversion from seronegative (HIV negative) to seropositive (HIV positive)

Which lobe controls motor movements?

cerebellum, basal gangila, supplementary motor area and parietal lobe

Frequently used scale to measure orientation

GOATGalveston Orientation and Amnesia Test

SCAD profile on the WAIS-III

Symbol Search, Digit Symbol Coding, Arithmetic and Digit Span

Low Working Memory and Low Processing Speed

indicates ADHD


react in a way that is opposite of what is requested or desired

Negative Reinforcement

Escape Conditioning

Smoking cessation outcome

Related to level of dependence

Best tx for GAD


Mainstream Americans

Internal locus of control and internal locus of responsibility

Working memory of the WAIS-III

Digit span, arithmetic and L-N sequencing


Exposure to a previously CS in the absence of a real aversive stimulus

To determine how well an examinee did on a test in terms of a specific standard of performance (norm vs. criterion)?


Monoamine neurotransmitter subdivided in 2 categories

(1) catecholamines(2) indolamines

Cathecolamines are -synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine


Indolamine are synthesized from tryptophan


Robber's Cave experiment: children in a summercamp divided into two groups on an arbitrary basis and made to engage in a competition with each other. Hostility and dislike decreased when task was to cooperate.

indicated superordinate goals reduce hostility between groups

Naltrexone - decrease alcohol cravings
Side effects are

nausea, headache, insomnia and anxiety

Pt with Alzheimer's disease has lowest scores on --- of WAIS-III

Performance Subtest:-Perceptual Organization-Processing Speed

Strong Interest Inventory (like all Interest Inventory) predicts

Occupational satisfaction

Tx of Bulimia, what med effect would be most effective

increase serotonin level

Forebrain structure that is important for motivated and emotional behavior

limbic system

Serial position effect

w/o delay, beginning and end will be recalled the bestwith delay, beginning only in long term; end of list is still in short tem

Meds for Parkinson does what

increase dopamine and blocks Ach receptors


memory is mistaken for imagination

Tip of the tongue

person is able to recall parts of an item or related information, but is frustratingly unable to recall the whole item


multiple similar memories are being recalled and interfere with each other.

Source confusion

person misremembers seeing an event personally when it was actually seen on tv

Tx for chronic pain

relaxation and coping skills

Reasoning involving by the tendency to move from one specific case to another without taking the general into account

Transduction (occurs in preoperation)

Inability to focus on more than one aspect of a situation or object at a time


Refers to the inability to transfer one type of conservation to another

Horizontal Decalage

Significant finding for a one-way ANOVA

indicates that population means are different

Primary circular reaction

E.g., thumb sucking

Vegetative Symptoms

sleep difficulties, appetite change, psychmotor retardation, reduced energy level, changes in sexual desire/function

1st degree relatives of schizophrenics are most likely to be diagnosed with

Schizotypal PD

Feigning memory disorder

Loss of personal ID but memory for other events is intact

Greatest increase in suicide rate is among

ages 15-24

In cases of litigation, the key defense for a psychologist is

sufficient record keeping

Murray Bowen's approach to family therapy is strongly influenced by

psychodynamic approach

IPT believes that depression is caused by

disturbances in early life related to attachment

Norm-referenced test

compares a student with the age or grade-level expectancies of a norm group

One way of joining the family


In factor analysis, explained variance of one of the factors


Mini-Mental Status Exam is useful for

screening for Dementia in older adults

Predictors of adolescent suicide

depression, use of drugs/alcohol and antisocial behavior

Explicit memory

Recall or recognition testsactive or conscious role in processing informationsense of remembering specific prior experience

Tonic phase

Extension of the limbs

Clonic phase

violent rhythmic contractions

Purpose of reframing

to increase family's compliance with the therapist directives and the treatment plan in general

Highest suicide rates in men

Older men. Ages 75-79

Reality Therapy

uses WDEP technique-based on 5 survival; to love and belong ; power ; freedom ; and fun

Early remission

there is more than one month but less than 12 months of remission


12 months or longer of remission

Adult Attachment Interview

1. autonomous2. pre-occupied3. dismissing

Functional Nocturnal Enuresis

not associated with any particular stage of sleep

Predictors of child psychopathology

Low SES, severe marital discord, large family size, parental criminality and placement outside of home

Broca's area

Left frontal lobe

Wernicke's area

posterior part of temporal lobe

Damage to arcuate fasciculus (nerve fibers that connect Broca's and Wernicke's) result in

Conduction Aphasia

APA record keeping guideline

7 years post-termination or 3 years after minor reaches age of maturity

Leading cause of infant mortality

congenital malformations


Multiple Regression

Views rules as unchangeable are absolute; punishment should fit the consequence

Heteronomous (ages 4-7)

Rules are determined and alterable. Intent of the actor should fit the punishment

Autonomous Reality

Discriminant Analysis is used for


Structural Equation Model

used to find cause-effect

Inverted U theory

anxiety and performance. Performance is improved when there's moderate anxiety

Tx for Dysthymia vs. MDD

IPT and CBT are effective but not quite effective than it is for MDD

someone with high self-esteem will views his/her achievement

as internal and specific

what brain structure mediates eating and sex, acting as a satisfaction center?

cingulate gyrus

what characteristic will someone who successfully goes through identity and identity confusion phase



adolescent compensates for a lack of identity by fusing with a group that eagerly provides its members with details of an identity: religious cults, military organizations, or hate groups.


occurs when the person becomes overzealous in identification to a particular role to the point that he or she is intolerant of others.

DSM-IV TR approach uses what approach

Polythetic approach: a person may have some but not all of the possible diagnostic criteria.

BASIC ID: biological, affective, sensations, images, cognitions, interpersonal relationship,drugs--biological functions, nutrition and exercise

Multimodal Approach (Lazarus)

Which is least likely affected by normal aging?

Picture Recognition

tendency to rate at the low end

Strictness or severity bias

Hostede's five cultural dimensions

power distance (a.), uncertainty avoidance (b.), individualism, masculinity (d.), and long-term orientation

Bupropion (Wellbutrin & Zypan)

NDRI (norepinephrine dopamine reuptake inhibitor)

SNRI (selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor)

Stratteri, non-stimulant used for tx of ADHD

SSNRI : Venlaflexin (Effexor) and duloxetine (Cymbalta)

tx of GAD, MDD and PD. less chances for overdose and more rapid onset than tricyclics

Neural development

proliferation, migration, differentation and myelination

Predictor of job turnover

Bio data

Sibling relationship during pre-adolescence

Closeness and Conflict

What part of the Ethical Code�set forth enforceable rules.�?

Ethical Standards

What part discusses the intent, organization, procedural considerations, and scope of application of the Ethics Code?


What part provide �aspirational goals to guide psychologists toward the highest ideals of psychology?

Preamble and General Principles

Endogenous Opiates


Exogenous Substance


Cingulate Cortex

Emotions and Motivation

Damage to the temporal lobe will produce deficts in

Episodic Memory

Tx for Factitious D/O

Support psychotherapy outpatient

What tx for parasuicidal behaviors (e.g., cutting) found in Borderline Per D/O

Dialectical Behavior Therapy


Transition state betweene being awake and falling asleep

More effective when the task is easy (decentralized vs. centralized)



ALL communication passes through one position or person, have been shown to be more efficient when tasks are mundane and simple.

Covert Modeling

Involves the learning of new behaviors or the altering of existing behaviors by imagining scenes of others interacting with the environment.

Covert Sensitization

An individual imagines he/she is engaging in the undesirable behavior and then imagines an aversive consequence for doing so.

Highest co-morbidity with GAD is

Social Phobia

Partial Reinforcement Effect

organisms respond for a longer period of time during extinction trials when they were previously reinforced on an intermittent schedule than when they were reinforced on a continuous schedule.

Most effective tx for anti-social juvenile offenders

Multi-systemic therapy

Multicultural competence

Awareness, knowledge and skill

HMO will likely approve if

patient has recently shown a decline

American Disabilities Acts

Protects individuals participating in a drug rehab program who are no longer using drugs

To best reduce likelihood of changing someone's persuasive message

Expose to a weak argument against current position

Prefrontal cortext

Working memory NOT motor functions

Women diagnosed with Borderline Personality

Similar to men with Anti-social PD

Amount of variability accounted for

eta squared

Criterion Contamination

increases validity coefficient

a lack of insight into one�s own behavior,
denial, an attempt to create a favorable impression, or the tendency to answer items �false.�

High L scale

Which is predictive of retirement satisfaction?

Participation in activities

Which group is not considered a race?


Federal law regarding HMO requirement for mental health service

short term (not to exceed 20 visits) crisis intervention and medical treatment and referral for alcohol and drug addiction

Psychoanalytic therapist will attribute anxiety to

failure of ego defense mechanism

What school of psychology: is structured and goal-oriented.
relapse prevention is a focus throughout and it is based on an collaborative model?

Beck's Cognitive

Beck Depression II inventory

0 to 13 = minimal depression. 14-19 = mild depression, 20-28 = moderate 29 or higher reflect severe depression.

Differences in size and body type between males and females

Sexual dimorphism

Which is the MOST stable trait (OCEAN)?


Which is the LEAST stable trait?


5 levels of Maslow's hieracrchy

Physiological, Safety, Social, Esteem and Self-Actualization

Opiate antagonist that is used to treat alcohol
abuse disorders by reducing the desire for alcohol after drinking has stopped and is also often used in maintenance treatment of opiate addiction.


Bupropion, Varenicline and Nicotine replacement interventions

Tx for nicotine dependence and smoking cessation

Proposes convergent and divergent thinking as dimensions of intelligence


Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence


Heterogeniety of group members

Positively correlated with creativity and decision making

Brain structure for kids with ADHD

frontal lobe, striatum and cerebellum

For a diagnosis of Tourette's disorder

must have multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic

Areas of the brain that is related to declarative memory are

diencephalon, peripheral cortex and hippocampus

Fielder situational control:

leader-employee relations, task structure, position or legitimate power

Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia highly associated with


Differences between the groups in experience
rather than age that could be accounting for differences between them on the dependent variable.

Cohort effect. Usually in cross-sectional design

Atrophy of the caudate nucleus

Huntington disease

A term to describe when a therapist�s ability to
recognize or consider other symptoms or conditions is �overshadowed� by one aspect of a client�s symptoms or condition

Diagnostic Overshadowing

States that certain small areas of the brain can take on the function of larger, related areas that have been destroyed

Principles of Equipotential

States that in many types of learning the cerebral cortex acts as a whole

Principle of mass action

States that feedback either reward or punishment will automatically strengthen or weaken responses

Law of Effect

States that the strength of response to a stimulus is not dependent on the strength of the stimulus

All or none principle

Keeps internal conflict or need out of conscious awareness

Primary Gain

Symptoms helps the individual avoid an unpleasant activity or obtain support from the environmnet

Secondary Gain

Pseudocyesis: believes she is pregnant and has physical signs of pregnancy but is not pregnant OR a person who has had one or two unexplained physical symptoms for less than 6 months

Somatoform Disorder NOS

Briequet Syndrome

Somatization D/O

Sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of
an individual�s skin, more generally known as the feeling of �pins and needles� or a limb �falling asleep�


Paired comparison as opposed to merit comparisons

More precise but difficult because it is time consuming

Relations between the genders are characterized by the coexistence of power differences and intimate interdependence

Ambivalent Sexism Theory

Repeatedly presenting the CS without the US

In-vivo exposure

Yerkes and Dodson

inverted U relationship between arousal and performance

Which of the WAIS subtest is most stable across lifespan

Verbal Comprehension

Primary function of school psychologist

Assess, consult and make recommendations

Damage to the right hemisphere

can produce apathy or undue cheerfulness.Pt will respond indifferently and exaggerated jocularity if rt hemisphere is damage.

Standard Error is NOT

a measure of variability

Rationalist, cognitive therapy includes

cognitive restructuring, thought stopping, and reducing automatic thoughts

Anxiety and depression share which of the following symptoms?

Negative Affect

A predictor that is highly sensitive for identifying the presence of a disorder would most likely result in

Higher false positive

The combination of social avoidance, fear of humiliation, and loneliness are characteristic of

Avoidant PD

Tension-reduction hypothesis proposes that alcohol abuse is due to


The idea that one is unique and not subject to the natural laws that govern others

Personal Fable

Misinformation effect (hindsight bias)

Retroactive Interference

The effects on children of observing aggressive models, such as through television violence, are

both short and long term

What are the two dimensions of leadership?

Consideration and initiating structure

An effective treatment for panic attacks


Substance Dependence


Cognitive distortions, such as overgeneralization, personalization, magnification, arbitrary inference, and selective abstraction are reflected statements

of Beck's Cognitive Theory

What is needed for a successful malpractice lawsuit against a psychologist?

Sufficient Harm

Performance generally

Decreases in the presence of others if the desired behavior is not well-learned.If you don't know something too well, having someone watch you can increase your anxiety

Client-centered approach

Congruence between self and experience

Involves episodes of abrupt awakening, usually with a panicky scream; however, a dream is not recalled.

Sleep terror disorder

To determine the degree of association between two variables that are reported in terms of ranks

Spearman Rho

The best predictor(s) for alcoholism

Family hx of alcoholism

Which of the following describes the parents who are most likely to raise very aggressive children?

Parents who use frequent and intermittent violence and have a laissez-faire attitude toward their children's behavior

The experience of REM-rebound occurs most often when

sedatives are discontinued

Which is related to exposure to sexual abuse, sexual harassment or sexual trauma?

Vaginismus involves involuntary contractions of the muscles in the outer third of the vagina when vaginal penetration is attempted) doesn�t have a clear etiology,

Behavioral treatment for obsessions would most likely involve

Deliberate exposure and thought stopping

Folie a deux

Two people who share a delusion of similar content

The risk for a monozygotic (identical) twin of a schizophrenic proband to be diagnosed with Schizophrenia is


The risk for a dizygotic (identical) twin of a schizophrenic proband to be diagnosed with Schizophrenia is


Provides information about a student in the
context of the existing curriculum. The results of such an assessment not only indicate the student's performance level -- they also provide feedback about the instruction itself, so that necessary changes can be made to better fit the student's ability and current knowledge.

Curriculum Assessment

Primary Memory

Short-term Memory

Secondary Memory

Long-term Memory

Sensory Memory

Has unlimited capacity, duration is 2 seconds and it is an external representation of the stimuli.

Alzheimer's usually characterized in 3 stages

Stage 1: which lasts 2-4 years, short-term memory loss begins. Patients in this stage frequently complain about forgetting where they placed things. Stage 2: which lasts 2-10 years, there is further memory impairment (mostly explicit rather than implicit) and they begin having difficulty performing complex tasks, such as balancing a checkbook or going grocery shopping. They may get lost in familiar places and become apathetic.Stage 3:theymay lose the ability to speak and become unable to recognize family, friends, or even themselves. They lose all capacity to care for themselves and have difficulty walking, are incontinent, and are ultimately bedridden and often die of an opportunistic respiratory infection.


Lack of initiation, motivation or goal-directed activities and is considered a "negative" symptom of Schizophrenia or Schizophreniform disorder

Anhedonia (b.)

refers to the inability to experience pleasure.

Anti-depressant medication (ADM) vs Cognitive Therapy

ADMs are more effective among severely depressed pts. No difference between Cog Therapy and ADMS among mild to moderate depression

Percentile ranks tend to ________ raw score differences in the middle of the score distribution and _______ raw score differences at the end of the distribution.

percentile ranks tend to overestimate raw score differences in the middle of the score distribution and underestimate raw score differences at the end of the distribution.

Confluence Model

each succeeding child has less of the family's resources available to him or her.-Only child will score the highest

Prevalence rates for Panic Disorder

1 to 2% in community samples

Freedom from Distractibility

Arithmetic and Digit Span

We likely change our attitudes to change our behavior

Cognitive Dissonance

Based on Elkind,

adolescent assumes that one is unique

Flashbulb memories are part of

Episodic memory

Smallest unit of language


Smallest unit of language that carries meaning


A whole word, which, when combined with gestures and intonation can express an entire thought.


Refers to knowledge we have about our own rather than about the nature of human knowledge in general.


Success Identity

William Glasser

Multiple Hurdles

Not all predictors are administered. If fail in one predictor, others are not administered

Examinees must succeed in ALL predictors

Multiple Cut-OFF

Storke in the left side of the brain

left-right disorientation, Wernicke's aphasia, finger agnosia

Valence refers to

desirability of the outcome

Motivational Interviewing


Iatrogenic Stressor

One that is produced by the treatment. Loss of companionship is NOT an Iatrogenic


predict and control behavior

Mini Mental Status Exam

Only cognitive functions

Rational Economic

Places too many demands on the organization


People base their attitude on behaviors

In consultee-centered case consultation, the consultant's role is



Different circumstances and opportunities lead to similar outcomes


Similar conditions results in different outcomes

Parents of antisocial children are usually

Lax and uninvolved

negative item discrimination

more low-achieving examinees answered the item correctly than high-achieving

low F scale score and elevated L and K scale scores

Parental Alienation

Mini Mental Status Exam

screening for Dementia

Simon's decision making

Rational (administrative) decision makers are not always completely rational in making choices

Learned Optimism- M. Seligman

tend to make external, unstable, and specific attributions in response to negative events.