CMST Chapter 6


argument by generalization


specific examples are translated into more general principles (ues similies metaphores and comparisons)


Argument by analogy


alternate experience to prove what is true in 1 case is true in the other


Argument by cause


establish a cause and effect relationship between 2 events


argument by sign


1 variable is used as proof of another, thigns present or not present is a sound that/of something else red band by black ok jack


argument by authority


relies on testimony and reasoning of a crediable source


argument by principle


the character of a pratice object event or proc is based on a universible or falls within the deffinition of some larger category


Logos


refers to the use of rational arguments and evidence to persuade an audience of the reasonableness of one's position. it is based on teh belief that human beings are rational beings with the potential to make decisions based on logic principles and evidence


Logical reasoning


the first kind of reasoning which is the use of inferences and proofs to establish relationships among propositions which warrent specific conclusion


grounds


are the supporting evidence for the claim


warrent


the inferential leap thata connects the claim with the ground, usually embodied in a principle, provision or chian of reasoning. usually left unstated


backing


is a reason used to justify the warrent


rebuttal


acknowledges the conditon where the claim might not hold


qualification


admits to the degree of certanity or confidence that the speaker has in the claim


generalization


warrents draweing a ageneral conclusion about a class of people events objects or processes based on specific examples drawn from experience


anology warrents


the comparison of two things that might not otherwise go together for the purposes of drawing a conclusion based on their sharing a vitial similarity. the purposes is to help understand a confused or problematic situation by drawing paralles with another more familar one.


sign warrents


the diagnosis of some underlying conditions based on the apperance of external clues or indicators


fallacies


represent not only the failure for a warrent to succesfully bridge the claim and the grounds but a failure of construction so egregious that the whole argument tumbles into the abyss


either/or


the most powerful of fallancies, presents audience with a stark choice by presenint two clear but competely opposite and incompatible alternatives based on excessive exaggeration of good and bad qualites.


slippery slope fallancy


which exaggerates the series of inevitiable and terrible concequences that will follow from perfoming some action


bandwagon fallacy


a forme of argument that encourages an audience to do somethign simply because majority of other people is doing it.


ad hominem


an argumative strategy that underminds an opposing position by attacking the personal character of its advocates rather than the position itself


fallacy of false cause


represents a strategy of attributing causes of effects based on one's immediate desires or fears rather than an objective study of the process


scapegoating fallacy


occurs when the cause of undersired effects is attributed falsely to a marginalized group of people who are generally powerless to defend themselfs


red herring


is an attempt by a rhtor to distract attention from an issues unplesasent by focusing attention on somethign unrealated more sensational and more beneficitial to ones self intrest


non sequitur


is a statment that has no apparent connection with the statments that came before or come after it


narrative


a dramatic story that creates a desire in an audience and then fulfills that desire by describing the interaction among agent, scene, at purpose and agency.


narrative fidelity


refers to how accurately a narrative represents accepted facts


narrative probability


referst to the coherences of the narrative as a story apart from the actual facts


ideology


a coherent and interlocking system of beliefs that is used ot decribe the pratical world of rthe sake of guiding action


myth


by contrast is a timeless story that accounts for the orgins struggles and destines of a people throught the actions of exceptional people in the past