Personality psychology exam 2


Gordan Allport


Started the whole trait approach"dirt phobia"counted over 4,000 personality traits in the dictionarywanted to find the major traits


Early typologies


Assumed that everyone fit into one or the other categoryPhrenologyMorphologyhumorism


Phrenology


Ones personality can be related to the mapping of one's brain by the mapping of the bumps of the brain.


Morphology


The body type of an individual can determine personalityectomorphicendomorphicmezomorphic


ectomorphic


Thin body typeseen as fragile


endomorphic


overweight body typeseen as lazy


mezomorphic


muscular type seen as productive ans sucessful


Humorism


looked at bodily fluids to determine personalityfour temperments: sanguine, melancholic, choleric, phlegmatic


sanguine (greek)


happy


melancholic (greek)


unhappy


choleric (greek)


tempermental


phlegmatic (greek)


apathetic


Modern Trait Dimensions


Personalities can be measured on a continum normally distributed


Normal Distribution


few people are at the extremes while everyone else lies somewhere in the middle


Henry Murray


Personologyhaving an affair with his wife but was encouraged to continue the affair to save marriage by jungidealist, patriotic, loyal, creative created the TAT test


Raymond Cattell


created the 16 PF test first in family to go to collegechemist but switched to personality psychology


Walter Mishel


criticized personality psychology tests


Nomothetic approach


Created by Gordon Allportmethod of understanding personality that compares many people along the same personality dimensions


idiographic approach


method of studying personality through in-depth analysis of one individual and the dimensions relevant to that person's personality.central traits then cardinal traits


common traits


traits that only appear depending on a certain situationexample: anxious before public speaking


central trait


specific traits that are specific to the individualexample: shy, honest, intelligent,


Cardinal Trait


a trait that completely defines ones personality very rare example: christ-like


functional autonomy


Our present motives are interdependent from our past behaviors


"Letters from Jenny"


to study the idiographic approach, Allport studied a woman who used the pseudonum Jenny Mastersonidentified eight of her central traits by studying more than 300 of her letters over 12 years.


Personology


Psychogenic Needs


the need for power, affiliation, achievement


Thematic Apperception test


Created by Henry Murray shows a picture and the patient tells a story of what is happening


Interaction with the "press"


Your behavior will not be activated unless there a situation( press) that calls for it example: the need for order will be pressed when you need to make time to clean your room even if it is slightly messy


Factor analysis


statistical procedure used to determine the number of dimensions in a data set.emprical search for central traits putting taits onto a 2d space (dimension scale)


16 Personality Factor Inventory


relevant to business and performancetests adults based on 16 major personality factors


The Big five


NeroticismExtraversionOpenness AgreeablenessConscientiousness


Neuroticism


insecure, emotionaly unstable, anxious


Openness


adaptable, open minded, variety


extraversion


outgoing, social, lively


agreeableness


warm, friendly, soft-hearted


conscientiousness


detail-oriented, carefeul, dependeable, organized


criticism of personality psychology


tests were misused and should not be a diagnosis not reliable or validneeds to look at situations Tests need to predict a constellation of behaviors in order to be more reliable


Response to criticism


personality psychology was paralyzed for the time beingtests became aggregatedPersonality Psychology is not a separate discipline


One item measurement


Testing for one major trait


aggregate data


finding a "constellation" of behaviors


Person-by-situation


looking at the relationship between a persons traits, situation, and behavior


Achievement motivation


Big 5 in the workplace


#1 most important trait is conscientiousnesstied for #2 are agreeableness for teamwork and extraversion for sales openness for creativity


Type A personality


An extreme description of a personality workaholic, time urgency, competitive, efficient, short tempered


Type B personality


an extreme description of a personality laid back, not urgent on time, less competitive


predictive validity for type A personality


higher awards, faster job advancement, work longer hoursless job satisfaction, high blood pressure


toxic component of type A personality


hostility towards little occurances in everyday life and could lead to heart diseaseif this can be controlled type A is very beneficial


evaluation apprehension


self anxiety about others will view yourself they mostly fear a negative evaluation


Drug Rehab changing personality


Those in drug rehab were tested at the beginning and after fifteen month this was found:Decreased neuroticismincreased agreeableness and conscientiousness


Changing Social Anxiety


Must have an increase in motivation and courage It will be a complete change however it will be enough so that it is significant to the individual.


Trait Profiling and Bullies


Have a high level of Neuroticism, conflicts with family, high levels of psychoticismAt age 26, bullies are 65% more likely to have a felony


Trait profling and whipping boys


High levels of Neuroticism, low self-esteem, and low social skills


Trait profiling and smokers


High neuroticism, extraversion, sensation seeking


Trait profiling and alchoholics


High Neuroticism and sensation seeking; impulsivelow agreeableness and conscientiousness


Trait profiling and serial killers


Serial killer triad (almost always shows in every serial killer)torturing small animalsstarting destructive firesbedwetting (lack of control, anal repulsive, aggression)


Hans Eysenck


Super Traits Backgournd: Jewish sympathizer during WWII,originally studied biology but forced to study psychology, wanted a big family


David Buss


Evolutional theories of universal traits Background: bad grades in school except math, dropped out of highschool but got into a prestigous university by a lottery pick, grew up in poverty


Biological Approach


Personality is formed by a combination of genetic and physiological traits


Heritability of temperament


The characteristic phenomena of an individuals emotional nature depends on experiences and how person responds to the experiencelargely inherited before first year of age


EAS temperaments


E- emotional activity (how easily angered is the child)A- acionality (the energy output; are they figity?)S- Sociability (tendency to socialize with others)


Super traits


used rudemetary by EysenckExtraversion, Neuroticism, psychotocismbelieved that these three were largely inherited


Hierarchy of traits


Supertraits -> traits-> habitual resonse -> specific response


example of hierarchy of traits


extraversion -> sociability -> likes to go to parties -> how person socializes at the party


Intraversion vs extraversion research


Eysenck studied different peoples reactions to caffeine extraverts are more likely to drink more caffeine because they are less sensitive to stimulationintraverts CNS operates at an above normal level so caffeine affects them more


Natural selection


inherited characteristics that help species meet and survive threats from the environmentmakes them more likely to survive and pass on traits to offspring


Universal traits


traits that have a reproductive advantage will most likely be passed on to future generations until it becomes a universal trait within gendersexample: fertility in women


Evolutionary mating behavior in males


tend to want the more mating partnersparental investment: sperm


evolutionary mating behavior in females


more choosier of mating partnerparental investment: 9 months of limited mobility


evolutionary mate selection in males


males tend to look for fertility cues anything that signals that the female is of fertile mating age (healthy skin, hair color, etc)


evolutionary mate selection in females


tend to look for resource cues anything to shoe that the male can provide for female and child example: money, status, intelligence


evolutionary sexual jealousy in males


males tend to have stronger sexual jealousy than emotional jealousystems from paternal uncertainty in that the father may be unsure of who the real biological father is


evolutionary sexual jealousy


emotional jealousy is stronger than sexual jealousy stems from the fact that the female may leave the resources that the father would provide female and child


Goodness of fit model


the sucess of a child in schools depends on how well its environment matches its learning capabilities, characteristics, an style of behavior, example: teacher's expectations, pace of learning, amount of content learned at a time


heritability of extraversion


extraverts require stronger stimulations to operate at peak levelneed some kind of "life" in surroundings to focusmore impulsive


heritability of intraverts


more receptive to stimulants; require lessneed few distractions to focus thinks things through before acting