What does ALTE stand for?

apparent life threatening event

What does CSHCN stand for?

children with special health care needs

What does DUMBELS stand for?


What does LANE stand for?


What does PHAILS stand for?


What does RSV stand for?

Respiratory Syncytial Virusvirus that usually causes bronchiolitis

What does TICLS stand for?

ToneInteractivityConsolabilityLook (gaze)Speech (cry)

What is the Wong Baker faces scale?

Pediatric pain scale

What is the STARR program?

developed by the NHTSASee the problems with safetyTalk to the familyAssess adverse home environmentRemedy situationReview and monitor over time

What is the EMSC program?

Emergency Medical Services for Childrennational program designed to ensure that all children and adolescents, no matter where they live, attend school, or travel, receive appropriate care in a health emergency

What is respiratory distress?

abnormal physiologic condition identified by increased work of breathing

What is respiratory failure?

the infant or child exhausts energy reserves or can no longer maintain oxygenation and ventilationmay occur when chest wall muscles get tired or when there is a failure of central respiratory drive from injury or toxicityidentified by abnormal appearance or cyanosis in a child with an increased work of breathingalso identified by an abnormally low respiratory rate and decreased respiratory effort usually with bradycardia

What is respiratory arrest?

absence of effective breathing

What is a unique sign/symptom of bacterial tracheitis?

A cough with pus

What is a unique sign/symptom of croup?

Barking cough

What are some unique signs/symptoms of epiglottitis?

Drooling and dysphagiaSudden onsetMuffled voice

What disease is RSV often associated with?


What is Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia?

Chronic lung disease associated with premature birth

How do we treat exascerbated BPD?

PPVHigh flow O2Consider nebulized epinephrine

What is the VS that differentiates between compensated and decompensated shock in children?


What percentage of TBW fluid loss compromises cardiac output and perfusion in a child?

>5% TBW

What percentage of TBW fluid loss compromises cardiac output and perfusion in an adolescent?


What is cardiomyopathy?

Any disease of the heart muscle that causes a reduction in the force of heart contractionsDecreases the amount of blood circulated to the lungs and to the rest of the body

What does cardiomyopathy usually result from?

Congenital abnormalities that affect both ventriclesViral infection

What are the symptoms of cardiomyopathy?

FatigueChest painDysrhythmiasSXS of heart failure and cardiogenic shock(Crackles, JVD, Hypotension, Peripheral Edema)

How do we manage cardiomyopathy?

ABCsIf decompensated, IV with antidysrhythmics, diuretics, or vasopressorsAvoid fluid resuscitation to avoid volume overload

What are the four major causes of pediatric dysrhythmias?

HypoxiaAcidosisHypotensionStructural heart disease

What is the first cause you should think of when observing bradycardia in a child?


What are some causes of bradycardia besides hypoxia?

HypoxemiaAcidosisHypotensionHypoglycemiaCNS injuryExcess vagal stimulationToxic ingestion

What is the most common nonarrest rhythm in kids?


What is the heart rate that can distinguish SVT from sinus tach in infants?

210 bpm

What is the heart rate that can distinguish SVT from sinus tach in kids?

180 bpm

What are some causes of VTach with a pulse in kids?

Congenital heart diseaseCardiomyopathiesMyocarditisReversible causesMetabolic causesHypothermia

What does "DOPE" stand for?


What is the normal tidal volume in a pediatric patient?


What are some signs of impending cerebral herniation?

Unequal or dilated unresponsive pupilsHypertensionBradycardiaRespiratory irregularities or apneaReduced response to stimulation

What are some things we can consider doing if suspecting impending cerebral herniation?

Elevate head of bed to 30 degrees if BP is adequateKeep head midlineShort periods of hyperventilation

Under what age is a positive Babinski's reflex considered normal?

6 months

What is the Monroe-Kellie doctrine?

Basic principle that there is limited space in the cranium allocated to CSF/blood and brain matterIf the brain begins to swell, it forces CSF/blood outIf excessive CSF/blood is present, it forces the brain out

What are some characteristics of febrile seizures?

No evidence of other causesUsually between 6 mos and 5 yearsOccur with rapid rise in feverMay be tonic-clonic or more subtleDuration usually <5 mins

How is epilepsy defined?

Seizure disorder involving >2 afebrile seizures

What is considered hypoglycemia in infants and children?


What is considered hypoglycemia in newborns?


What is the level at which we consider a fever dangerous and may cause brain damage?

105 degrees

How do we manage hyperglycemia in a child?

ABCsIV fluid therapy if signs of dehydration are present

What is a common complication of alcohol ingestion in young children?


What are the "One-Pill Killers"?

CamphorChloroquineClonidineGlyburideImipramine (Tricyclics)LIndaneDisphenoxylate/atropinePropranololTheophyllineVerapamil

What is "QUEST" and what does it stand for?

Outlines the steps to take to evaluate pain in young childrenQuestionUse pain scaleEvaluate behavior and physiological signsSeek parents' inputTake action and assess results

What are some known risk factors for SIDS?

Maternal smoking or drugsMother <20 y/oNo prenatal careSocial deprivationPremature births

What are the hours during which SIDS usually occurs?

Midnight to 6 am

Most SIDS deaths occur within what age group?

Most (85%) under 6 monthsTypical age range is up to 1 year

What complications can be seen with tracheostomy tubes?

ObstructionBleedingAir leakageDislodgementInfection

How do we manage a tracheostomy tube that has become blocked and cannot be cleared?

Replace with another tubeSuction firstReplace temporarily with ET tube if necessary

What is a VAD?

Vascular access deviceSeen in patients who need prolonged access to venous circulation for drug or fluid therapy

What are some complications of VADs?

Cracked lineAir embolismBleedingObstructionLocal infection

How do we manage local infection of a VAD?

Sterile techniqueRemove old bandagesCleanse the sightReplace clean bandagesTransport

How do we manage hemorrhage at the site of a VAD?

Gentle, direct pressure with aseptic techniqueTransportFluid replacement if hypovolemic

How do we manage a suspected air embolus from a VAD?

Stop the infusionLeft side head down positionHigh flow O2MCEPRapid transport

How do we manage obstruction of a VAD?