CMST 2060 Chapter 3


contingency


unexpected obstacle, perplexity, or problem


rhetorical situation


when public continguences generate concern and uncertainty with in a public audience


techical situation


dexist when we confront problems with a proven method to guide us


rhetorical background


specific aspects of a common situation as affects the audience


rhetorical background


larger envirnoment that defines the historical and social context for the situation


motives of the participants


various things (emotions, attitudes etc.)that may influence their behaviors


public


a complex interaction of individuals that constitute a political culture


counterpublics


develop outside of and counter to the established mechanisms of the state


open society


facts are made available and judgments are made by its members through open discussion, criticism, and persuasion


closed society


leaders suppress opinions they feel could be dangerous


public sphere


the forum best suited for allowing peopel to speack about matters of public concern


techical sphere


an elite group with specialized knowledge uses techincal jargon to discuss narrow problems


personal sphere


a language which favors the expression of feelings and opinions


authoritative sphere


only views encouraged to be expressed are those sanctioned by the authorities


status


relative authority or marginality that some thing/someone has.


authority


something valued, respected, and/or embraced


marginality


something that is widely condemned, ignored, and/or rejected


public opinion


percentage of people who hold certain views to be true


opinions


Conscious personal beliefs expressed as a commitment to a certain matter of factor value


conventions


the accepted and established habits, norms, routines, traditions, and unspoken laws of a community


social knowlegde


a culture's conventiaonal wisdom and practical judgment


exigence


an experience of contingency that makes us feel a combination of concern and uncertainty


rhetorical exigence


public issue that generates concern and uncertainty and which can be resolved in part through rhetical persuasion


presence


a subject that is "on the public's mind"


uncontested exigence


audience acheives consensusas to what the problem is but is uncertain of a solution


contested exigence


when the audience isn't sure that there is an problem


practical judgment


the act of defining things in term of a general category for the purposes of making a pratical decision


audience


the larger publics who might eventually be influenced by the speaker's words in some way


constraints


obstacles that stand between us and the attainment of our interests


rhetorical constraints


obstacles that must be over come in order to facilitate both the persuasive and pratical effects desired by the speaker


internal constrains


the beliefs, attitudes, and values of an audience that must be changed if persuasion is to occur


belief


pervading attitude


external constraints


the people, objects, processes, and events that may physically obstruct any productive action even if persuasion of an audience has occured


rhetor


a conscious instigator of social action who uses persuasivediscourse top achieve his or her ends


occasion


the specific setting shared by speaker and audience whose circumstances constrain the form and appropriateness of what is said


purpose


the reason for and circumstances under which the occasion occurs (reason for the speech)


message


spoken language delivered for the purpose of persuading an audience to think, act and feel in ways different than it already does.