CMST 2060 Chapter 3


unexpected obstacle, perplexity, or problem

rhetorical situation

when public continguences generate concern and uncertainty with in a public audience

techical situation

dexist when we confront problems with a proven method to guide us

rhetorical background

specific aspects of a common situation as affects the audience

rhetorical background

larger envirnoment that defines the historical and social context for the situation

motives of the participants

various things (emotions, attitudes etc.)that may influence their behaviors


a complex interaction of individuals that constitute a political culture


develop outside of and counter to the established mechanisms of the state

open society

facts are made available and judgments are made by its members through open discussion, criticism, and persuasion

closed society

leaders suppress opinions they feel could be dangerous

public sphere

the forum best suited for allowing peopel to speack about matters of public concern

techical sphere

an elite group with specialized knowledge uses techincal jargon to discuss narrow problems

personal sphere

a language which favors the expression of feelings and opinions

authoritative sphere

only views encouraged to be expressed are those sanctioned by the authorities


relative authority or marginality that some thing/someone has.


something valued, respected, and/or embraced


something that is widely condemned, ignored, and/or rejected

public opinion

percentage of people who hold certain views to be true


Conscious personal beliefs expressed as a commitment to a certain matter of factor value


the accepted and established habits, norms, routines, traditions, and unspoken laws of a community

social knowlegde

a culture's conventiaonal wisdom and practical judgment


an experience of contingency that makes us feel a combination of concern and uncertainty

rhetorical exigence

public issue that generates concern and uncertainty and which can be resolved in part through rhetical persuasion


a subject that is "on the public's mind"

uncontested exigence

audience acheives consensusas to what the problem is but is uncertain of a solution

contested exigence

when the audience isn't sure that there is an problem

practical judgment

the act of defining things in term of a general category for the purposes of making a pratical decision


the larger publics who might eventually be influenced by the speaker's words in some way


obstacles that stand between us and the attainment of our interests

rhetorical constraints

obstacles that must be over come in order to facilitate both the persuasive and pratical effects desired by the speaker

internal constrains

the beliefs, attitudes, and values of an audience that must be changed if persuasion is to occur


pervading attitude

external constraints

the people, objects, processes, and events that may physically obstruct any productive action even if persuasion of an audience has occured


a conscious instigator of social action who uses persuasivediscourse top achieve his or her ends


the specific setting shared by speaker and audience whose circumstances constrain the form and appropriateness of what is said


the reason for and circumstances under which the occasion occurs (reason for the speech)


spoken language delivered for the purpose of persuading an audience to think, act and feel in ways different than it already does.