BPS Chapter 8

examples, narrative, testimony, facts, and statistics that support the speech thesis and form the speech

Supporting Material

an illustration whose purpose is to aid understanding by making ideas, items, or events more concrete and by clarifying and amplifying meaning


firsthand findings, eyewitness accounts, and opinions by people, both lay (nonexpert) and expert


documented occurenced, including actual events, dates, times, places, and people involved


a brief story of an interesting, humorous, or real-life incident that links back to the speaker's theme


quantified evidence; data that measure the size or magnitude of something, deonstrate trends, or show relationships with the purpose of summarizing information, demonstrating proof, and making points memorable


a type of average that represents the center-most score in a distribution; the point above and below which 50 percent of the scores fall


selectively presenting only those facts and statistics that buttress one's point of view while ignoring competing data


a story based on personal experiences or imaginary incidents