38 GI System


abdominal assessment order


1. inspection2. auscultation3. percussion4. palpation


high pitched loud rushing sound heard with or without a stethoscope


borborygmi


which quadrant does auscultation in the abdomen begin?


right lower quadrant


which pulse is BP palpated?


radial


exam positions used to examine the rectum:


Sims, Knee chest, and Lithotomy


who can be accused of malpractice?


professionals


_____ emphasizes the clients right to self determination


advance directives


the digestive system is also known as the:


gastrointestinal system or alimentary system


what is the function of the digestive system


to break down complex food into simple nutrients that the body can absorb and turn into energy


where does digestion begin?


the mouth


small ball of food is known as


bolus


hollow muscular tube that is about 10 inches long


esophagus


A coordinated rythmic contraction of the muscles that pushes the bolus through the esophagus


peristalsis


_____ is also known as the cardiac sphincter that relaxes adn allows food to pass into the stomach


lower esophageal sphincter


a j-shaped muscular organ located beneath the diaphragm


stomach


two gastric juices that are secreted by the stomach


hydrocholoric acidpepsinogen


a semiliquid mass


chyme


what is the average time it takes for the stomach to empty?


3 to 4 hours


what is the easiest thing for the stomach to digest?


carbohydrates


what is the hardest thing for the stomach to digest


fats


three parts of the small intestine


duodenum, jejunum, ileum


part of the small intestine that is responsible for absorbing nutrients from the chyme


duodenum


part of the small intestine that is responsible for absorbing fat, protein adn carbohydrates


jejunum


part of the small intestines that is responsible for absorbing salts


ileum


another name for large intestine


colon


parts of the large intestine include


ascending colontransverse colondescending colonsigmoid colon


responsible for absorbing water, electrolytes and bile salts


large intestine


three accessory organs


pancreas, gallbladder and liver


a fish shaped organ that has both endocrine and exocrine functions


pancreas


endocrine functions to produce ____ & _____ to regulate blood sugar level


glucagon & insulin


____ produces enzymes such as amylase, lipase, and protease


pancreas


enzyme that converts carbs into glucose


amylase


enzyme that aids in fat digestion


lipase


enzyme that breaks down protein


protease


the largest glandular organ in the body


liver


liver function examples:


produce heparin, filter blood and destroy bacteria, manufacture cholesterol, produce adn secrete bile, detoxify poisonous substances


where is bile bile produced


liver


bile acts as a _________


fat emulsifier


pearshaped sac attached to the underside of the liver


gallbladder


____ stores and concentrates bile until it is needed by the small intestine


gallbladder


painful condition characterized by inflammation and ulcerations in the mouth


stomatitis


also called banding, involves placing a rubber band tie or O-ring on the varix


esophageal ligation


vomiting blood


hematemasis


bloody stool


melena


inflammation of the stomach mucosa


gastritis


GI effects of aging


decrease peristalsisoral changesdecrease enzyme decrease saliva


stomatitis treatment


antibiotics, analgesics, and monitor fluid intake


gastric secretions flow upward into esophagus


GERD


Pt.s with GERD should avoid what types of food


AcidicFattyFried


what should the nurse observe with Pt.'s with GERD


melena (black tarry stool) and pain


this disorder is characterized by pain 1-2 hours after eating, eating does not relieve pain, wt. loss occurs


peptic ulcer


what is the treatment for ulcers


antacids, bismuth, proton pump inhibitors


where will the person with appendicitis have pain


RLQ (assess mcburney's point)


what type of diet is encouraged for diverticulosis


high fiber diet; stool softeners


inflammation that occurs anywhere throughout the colon and small inestine.

s/s is and. pain & bloody diarhea


Crohn's disease


this disease has no organic cause and treatment is diet and medication.

s/s is cramping, and. pain, bloating, constipation, and diarrhea


irritable bowel syndrome


s/s of of this disease - epigastric pain radiating to the back, nausea, anorexia, fever, and vomiting

treatment: IV hydration, berets, NPO, medication


pancreatitis