38 GI System

abdominal assessment order

1. inspection2. auscultation3. percussion4. palpation

high pitched loud rushing sound heard with or without a stethoscope


which quadrant does auscultation in the abdomen begin?

right lower quadrant

which pulse is BP palpated?


exam positions used to examine the rectum:

Sims, Knee chest, and Lithotomy

who can be accused of malpractice?


_____ emphasizes the clients right to self determination

advance directives

the digestive system is also known as the:

gastrointestinal system or alimentary system

what is the function of the digestive system

to break down complex food into simple nutrients that the body can absorb and turn into energy

where does digestion begin?

the mouth

small ball of food is known as


hollow muscular tube that is about 10 inches long


A coordinated rythmic contraction of the muscles that pushes the bolus through the esophagus


_____ is also known as the cardiac sphincter that relaxes adn allows food to pass into the stomach

lower esophageal sphincter

a j-shaped muscular organ located beneath the diaphragm


two gastric juices that are secreted by the stomach

hydrocholoric acidpepsinogen

a semiliquid mass


what is the average time it takes for the stomach to empty?

3 to 4 hours

what is the easiest thing for the stomach to digest?


what is the hardest thing for the stomach to digest


three parts of the small intestine

duodenum, jejunum, ileum

part of the small intestine that is responsible for absorbing nutrients from the chyme


part of the small intestine that is responsible for absorbing fat, protein adn carbohydrates


part of the small intestines that is responsible for absorbing salts


another name for large intestine


parts of the large intestine include

ascending colontransverse colondescending colonsigmoid colon

responsible for absorbing water, electrolytes and bile salts

large intestine

three accessory organs

pancreas, gallbladder and liver

a fish shaped organ that has both endocrine and exocrine functions


endocrine functions to produce ____ & _____ to regulate blood sugar level

glucagon & insulin

____ produces enzymes such as amylase, lipase, and protease


enzyme that converts carbs into glucose


enzyme that aids in fat digestion


enzyme that breaks down protein


the largest glandular organ in the body


liver function examples:

produce heparin, filter blood and destroy bacteria, manufacture cholesterol, produce adn secrete bile, detoxify poisonous substances

where is bile bile produced


bile acts as a _________

fat emulsifier

pearshaped sac attached to the underside of the liver


____ stores and concentrates bile until it is needed by the small intestine


painful condition characterized by inflammation and ulcerations in the mouth


also called banding, involves placing a rubber band tie or O-ring on the varix

esophageal ligation

vomiting blood


bloody stool


inflammation of the stomach mucosa


GI effects of aging

decrease peristalsisoral changesdecrease enzyme decrease saliva

stomatitis treatment

antibiotics, analgesics, and monitor fluid intake

gastric secretions flow upward into esophagus


Pt.s with GERD should avoid what types of food


what should the nurse observe with Pt.'s with GERD

melena (black tarry stool) and pain

this disorder is characterized by pain 1-2 hours after eating, eating does not relieve pain, wt. loss occurs

peptic ulcer

what is the treatment for ulcers

antacids, bismuth, proton pump inhibitors

where will the person with appendicitis have pain

RLQ (assess mcburney's point)

what type of diet is encouraged for diverticulosis

high fiber diet; stool softeners

inflammation that occurs anywhere throughout the colon and small inestine.

s/s is and. pain & bloody diarhea

Crohn's disease

this disease has no organic cause and treatment is diet and medication.

s/s is cramping, and. pain, bloating, constipation, and diarrhea

irritable bowel syndrome

s/s of of this disease - epigastric pain radiating to the back, nausea, anorexia, fever, and vomiting

treatment: IV hydration, berets, NPO, medication