Anatomy Chapter 18


Skeletal system


bony framework of the body


Cartilage


Nonvascular connective tissue


Joint


Where bones meet


Hematopoiesis


Process within the skeletal system which forms blood cells.


Osteoblasts


bone building cells


Osteoclasts


bone reabsorbing cells


Osteocytes


mature bone cells


Ossification (calcification)


Complete bone formation


Bone matrix


Mixture of collagen fibers and chemicals


Lamellae


layers of bone


Haversian System


Has canals of veins, arteries, and lymph vessels that penetrate the bone matrix


Bone Marrow


Made up of connective tissue and blood vessels.


Red marrow


responsible for manufacture of red and white blood cells.


Yellow marrow-


Produces some white blood cells


Cartilage


Connective tissue attached to bone


Hyaline Cartilage


covers the ends of bones


Elastic Cartilage


very flexible


Fibrous cartilage


connects bones to other bones at joints


Fossa


a depression or hollow space in a bone for attachments.


Foramen


hole or opening in a bone through which blood vessels and nerves can pass


Sinus


Air-filled cavity in a bone


Fissure


Narrow opening between parts of a bone that allows blood vessels and nerves to pass.


Condyte


Large, rounded, knuckle-like prominence that forms a joint with another bone


Tuberosity


Large, rounded, roughened process that attaches muscles and ligaments to the bone


Fontanel


space between skull bones at birth filled with dense fibrous connective tissue.


Long bones


found in the upper and lower extremities


Short bones


appear in the wrist (carpals) and ankle (tarsals).


Flat bones


found in the skull, ribs, and scapula


Irregular bones


spinal column, sphenoid and sphenoid bones of skull, the sacrum, the coccyx, patella and mandible.


Diaphysis


main shaft of long bone


Epiphysis


expanded ends of long bones


Metaphysis


Flared ends of long bones between the epiphysis and the diaphysis


Epiphyseal plate (growth plate)


layer of cartilage located where the epiphysis meets the mataphysis


Medullary cavity


Cavity where bone marrow is deposited in long bones.


Compact bone


dense bone on the outside of short, flat, and irregular bones.


Axial Skeleton


contains bones of skull, spinal column, ribs, sternum, and hyoid bone ( in throat)


Paranasal sinuses


large spaces within the skull's framework


Articulation


the joining together of flat bones


Sutures


place where articulation occurs


Fontanels


soft spots located between cranial bones


Frontal bone


forms the forehead


Parietal Bones (2)- left and right


-give shape to the top of the cranium


Occipital Bone


forms the back part of the cranial floor


Foramen Magnum


arge opening at the base of the occipital bone where spinal column joins the skull.


Temporal Bones (2)


form the lower sides of the skull


Sphenoid Bone


located behind nose and eye sockets


-bat bone


Ethmoid Bones


form most of the bony area between the nasal cavity and the eye orbits.


Foramena


smaller openings in the cranial bones through which cranial nerves and blood vessels pass


Mandible


Lower jawbone


Maxillae


upper jawbones


Nasal bones (2)


located side by side


Vomer bone


forms the lower wall between the nostrils


Zygomatic bones


cheekbones


Lacrimal Bones


within the eye orbits along side of nose


Palatine Bones


behind the hard palate


Nasal Conchae


above the roof of the mouth.


Vertebral Column


spinal column


Cervical Vertebrae


7

-located in the neck


atlas


first vertebrae, which supports head and allows head to nod


axis


second vertebrae- serves as a pivot when the head turns from side to side


Thoracic Vertebrae


12

-posterior portion of each of the 12 rib pairs is attached to these


Lumbar Vertebrae


5

-support the weight of the entire body -are heavier and larger than other vertebrae


Sacrum


begins as 5 bones that fuse to one

-located between the 2 hip bones


Coccyx (tailbone)


begins as 4 bones that fuse to 1


Intervertebral discs


discs of cartilage that separate vertebrae from one another


Spinous process


weight bearing, drum shaped structure toward the front of each vertebrae


Sternum


Breastbone


Manubrium


(upper portion) of the sternum- joins with the collarbone and first rib.


Body


(middle portion) of the sternum- next nine ribs attach there.


Xiphoid process


(lower portion) of the sternum� forms attachment for the diaphragm and abdominal muscles.


There are 12 pairs of ribs


-7 pairs of true ribs � attach directly to the sternum -3 pairs of false ribs � connected indirectly to the sternum -2 pairs of floating ribs � attached only to the vertebrae


Appendicular Skeleton


contains bones of the upper and lower extremities


Pectoral Girdle


forms the shoulder


Clavicle


collarbone


Scapula


shoulder blade


Sternoclavicular joint


where the clavicle and sternum join


Acromion Process


where the scapula and clavicle join -site of muscle attachment


Humerus


upper arm


Olecranon Process


Where the humerus joins the bones of the elbow


Radius


thumb side of the forearm


Ulna


little finger side of the forearm


Carpals


8 small bones of the wrist


Metacarpals


form the hand


Phalanges


bones of the finger


Pelvic Girdle


brings together the hip bones, sacrum and coccyx


ilium


upper portion of pelvis


ischium


lowest portion


pubis


joins hipbones together


Acetabulum


the socket where the femur joins the pelvic girdle.


Femur


thighbone


Patella


kneecap


Tibia


larger and stronger bone of the lower leg


Fibula


smaller bone of the lower leg


Tarsal bones


7 bones of the ankle


Metatarsals


long bones of the foot


Phalanges


toes


Longitudinal arch


stretches front to back


Transverse arch


goes from side to side


Articulations


joints where 2 or more bones come together


Synarthrosis


no movement


Amphiarthrosis


slight movement


Diarthrosis


free movement


Articular cartilage


lippery type of cartilage that covers the surfaces of two bones that come together


Bursa


a capsule made up of tough, fiberous connective tissue and filled with synovial fluid


Synovial Cavity


filled with synovial fluid


Ball and socket joints


allow widest range of movement


Hinge joints


move only in one direction


Pivot joints


allow for rotation


Saddle joints


have a concave-convex socket


Gliding joints


allow flat surfaces to move across each other


Condyloid joints


oval-shaped bones that fit into an elliptical cavity.


Ligaments


connect bones to bones


Tendons


connect muscles to bones


Flexation


a bending motion that brings 2 neighboring bones closer together


Extension


opposite of flexation and results from an increase in the angle of the bones.


Abduction


when an extremity is moved away from the body.


Adduction


occurs when movement goes toward the midline of the body.


Rotation


when one bone moves or turns on its own axis.


-supination


turning the palm upward


pronation


turning the palm downward


inversion


turning sole of foot inward


eversion


turn sole of foot outward


Circumduction


a combination of flexation, abduction, extension, and adduction, in that order.


Dislocation


the displacement of a joint from its proper position


reduction


returning bones to their proper position


Subluxation


partial dislocation of a joint


Sprain


when the ligaments around the joint are stretched, torn, or ruptured


Strain


when muscles or tendons are stretched beyond their capacity


Fracture


bone break


Closed reduction


repairing the break when the skin has not been punctured or does not require surgical opening


Open reduction


when a bone breaks through the skin