Define TENS

transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

Contraindications for TENS

Undiagnosed pain - unless recommended by medical practitionerHeart Disease - clear with cardiologistEpilepsyPregnancy - first trimester and over the uterusDo not apply over carotid sinus, on broken skin, internally

Common pulse waveforms used in TENS

Monophasic pulsedSymmetrical biphasic pulsedBalanced asymmetrical biphasic pulsedSpike like biphasic pulsed

Conventional TENS

Uses: more acute conditions, gating mechanismOptimal Elcetrode Sites: dermatomes, cutaneous intervation or peripheral nerve to areas of pain

Conventional TENS Settings

High Frequency Low intensityShort Duration20-60min treatmentTemporary relief

Acupuncture like TENS

Uses: more chronic conditions endorphine responseOptimal electrode sites: myotomes, superficial motor points, nerves, acupuncture and trigger points

Acupuncture like TENS settings

strong low frequency to be tolerancelow frequencylong durationpain relief takes 20-30 mins post treatment

Define Train/cycle burst

a modulation which combines high and low frequency modes

Burst TENS settings

intensity comfortable Rate highburst lowduration variableTreatment time 20-60minslong lasting pain relief

Define HVPC

HVPC is the application of monophasic direct current to the body with a known polarity under each set of electoresuses a twin peaked waveform or a train of two single pulses with a very short phase durationaverage current is low and low pulse charge results

HVPC for gait

intensity - sensoryfrequency - highlow pulse durationcontinuous modeelectrodes over painful site

HVPC for opiate

motor intensitylow frequencylong durationcontinuous modeelectrode placement over painful site