Science - Ch 10

Asexual Reproduction

*does not require sex cells*offspring is genetically identical to parent*can be grown from roots, stems, leaves

Sexual Reproduction

*requires making of sex cells-sperm (male sex cell)-egg (female sex cell)*offspring is genetically different to parent*fertilization occurs-combining of sperm and egg to form zygote--first cell of new organism*happens through dispersal-carrying sperm to egg-by wind, water, animals, gravity

2 Stages to a Plant's Life Cycle

1) Gametophyte2) Sporophyte

Gametophyte Stage

*produces sex cells*produces haploid cells-half the set of chromosomes for an organism*allows fertilization to occur*producing a zygote*non-vascular plants spend most of life

Sporophyte Stage

*forms spores*produces diploid cells-have full set of chromosomes (pair up)*spores go through cell division*vascular plants spend most of life

Moss Life Cycle

> sporophyte >> spore >> gametophyte >< zygote << fertilization << sex cells <
*sporophyte cannot do photosynthesis*gets nutrients and water from gametophyte

Alternation of Generations

*switching from sporophyes producing gametophytes, etc.

Fern Life Cycle

> frond (sporophyte stage) >< prothallus (gametophyte stage) <

Gymnosperm Reproduction

*cones - contain the reproductive cells

Male Cone*smaller in size*grows on tip of branches*has pollen-contains sperm
Female Cone*larger in size*grows along the branch*produces egg from ovule

Gymnosperm Reproductive Process

1) Pollination2) Forms a Pollen Tube3) Fertilization4) Zygote5) Embryo


*transfer of pollen to the ovule*by dispersal-movement of pollen or seeds by wind, water, insects, animals, gravity

Forms a Pollen Tube

*allows sperm to get to egg


*yound plant that will form a seed

Angiosperm Reproduction

*reproductive organ>flower

4 Parts to a Complete Flower

1) Petal2) Pistil3) Stamen4) Sepal


*part of stemF*allows flower to grow


*leafy part of flowerF*protects flower (bud)F*supports stem


*colored part of flowerF*attracts for pollination


*contains male reproductive cell

2 Parts to a Stamen

A) AntherB) Filament


*sticky substance that contains pollen*contains sperm - male sex cell


*"stem" of stamen


*contains female reproductive cell

3 Parts to a Pistil

A) StigmaB) StyleC) Ovary


*top sticky partF*collects pollen


*"stem" of pistilF*forms a pollen tube


*contains ovule-contains eggs

Angiosperm Reproductive Process

1) Pollination2) Forms a Pollen Tube3) Fertilization4) Zygote5) Embryo


*mature ovule


*mature ovary


*new seed developing into a new plant