dcamacho


Acid-Base Balance - know the numbers:
1. PH =
2. PaCO2=
3. PaO2=
4. Bicarb=


1. 7.35-7.452. 35-453. 80-1004. 22-26


PH=7.30
PCO2= 36
PO2=92
HCO3=18

What is the ABG?


Metabolic acidosis


PH=7.43
PO2=84
PCO2=2
HCO3=19

What is the ABG?


Respiratory Alkalosis


PH=7.12
PCO2=90
PO2=unknown
HCO3=22

What is the ABG?


Respiratory acidosis


Clinical manifestations of respiratory acidosis include?


drowsiness, disorientation, dizziness, headache, coma, decreased blood pressure, ventricular fibrillation (related to hyperkalemia from compensation), No GI SorSx, seizures, hypoventilation with hypoxia (lungs are unable to compensate when there is a respiratory problem)


Clinical manifestations of metabolic acidosis?


drowsiness, confusion, headache, coma, decreased BP, dysrhytmia (related to hyperkalemia from compensation), warm, flushed skin (related to peripheral vasodilation), nausea, vomitting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, No neuromuscular issues, deep rapid respirations (compensatory action by the lungs)


Clinical manifestations of Respiratory alkalosis?


lethargy, lightheadedness, confusion, tachycardia, dysrhythmias (related to hypokalemia from compensation), nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, tetany, numbness, tingling of extremities, hyperreflexia, seizures, hyperventilation (lungs are unable to compensate when there is a respiratory problem)


Clinical manifestations of Metabolic alkalosis?


drowsiness, dizziness, nervousness, confusion, tachycardia, dysrhythmias (related to hypokalemia from compensation), anorexia, nausea vomiting, tremors, hypertonic muscles, muscle cramps, tetany, tingling of extremities, seizures, hypoventilations (compensatory action by the lungs)


Why would a Hematocrit test be ordered?


To diagnosis RBC disordersMonitor anemia treatmentRecover from dehydrationMonitor ongoing bleeding


What is a Hematocrit test used for?


To determine...Increase/decrease in RBC (anemia or polycythemia)DehydrationBlood transfusions


What is a CBC test used for?


To determine...WBC/RBC countHemoglobin (amount of oxygen carrying protein in the blood)Hematocrit (% of RBC in a given volume of whole blood)Platelet count (# of platlets in a given volume of blood)


Why would a CBC test be ordered?


To diagnosis general health: Blood disordersdiseaseAutoimmune conditionscongenital conditionsacute/chronic conditions


What is a hemoglobin test used for?


To measure severity of anemia polycythemia


Why would a hemoglobin test be ordered?


Ordered with complete CBC, also to diagnosis chronic anemias or polycythemia


What do the results of a CBC test mean?


Increase WBC=infection presentDecrease RBC=anemiaPlatelet low or high=excessive bleeding or clotting associated with disease bone marrow (leukemia)


What is a BUN test used for?


To determine...kidney functiondiabetes, congestive heart failure (CHF) myocardial infarctionkidney disease


Why is a BUN test ordered?


To diagnose kidney disease, monitor patients with acute or chronic kidney dysfunction or failure


What is a creatinine test used for?


To determine if client has diabetes (that is known to affect the kidneys)


Why would a creatinine test be ordered?


To dianose kidney disease ordered before a CT scan, prior to certain drug therapies and before dialysis to evaluate effectiveness of the treatments


What are the normal values of?
Sodium=
Potassium=
Calcium=
Magnesium=


Sodium= 135-145mEq/LPotassium= 3.5-5.1 mEq/LCalcium= 8.6-10 mg/dLMag=1.6-2.6 mg/dL


When monitoring fluid/electrolyte imbalances a nurses daily physical assessments should include?


daily weightsI&OLaboratory studies